Paleoenvironmental recostruction of the gulf of Elefsina during Holocene, based on Macrofaunal analysis = Παλαιοπεριβαλλοντική ανασύσταση του κόλπου της Ελευσίνας βάσει της μακροπανίδας κατά το Ολόκαινο

Nikolaos Mavrommatis


The Gulf of Elefsina is a geomorphological embayment located in the northernmost part of the Saronic Gulf in central Greece. In order to assess the paleoenvironmental evolution of the area, an analysis was carried out using mollusk species retrieved from a locally drilled core sample named S2P. The methods used in this study included qualitative - quantitative - statistical analysis of the faunal specimens, macroscopic lithology description of the core sample, radiocarbon dating of core material and sand/mud percentages calculation. The collected specimens amounted to a total of 10500, from which 6661 individuals were observed, belonging to 44 mollusk genera. Four faunal assemblages were distinguished: the oldest Assemblage D (“fossil”) consists of rounded and possibly calcified specimens; Assemblage C (freshwater - oligohaline environment) includes freshwater-brackish living species such as Theodoxus sp. and Hydrobia sp. and low values of faunal indices (Taxa (S), Shannon-Wiener H’, Density); Assemblage B (open lagoon) consists of the brackish living species Cerastoderma glaucum, Mytilaster marioni, Hydrobia sp. and intermediate values of faunal indices; Assemblage A (marine) comprises marine living species (mainly Bornia sebetia, Corbula gibba, Myrtea spinifera, Nucula nitidosa, Timoclea ovata, Bittium reticulatum and Turritella communis) and high values of faunal indices. The data showed that due to early Holocene sea level rise, Elefsina Gulf started to be affected by the sea (saline intrusions) and in a period of ~3000 years it turns from a freshwater environment to a closed lagoon, and in the end it connects with the sea to form an open lagoon. Βefore ~10,5 ka BP the environment became marine, with periodic anoxic episodes reflecting restricted communication with the open sea.

Ο κόλπος της Ελευσίνας αποτελεί μια γεωμορφολογική εμβάθυνση, η οποία βρίσκεται στο βορειότερο τμήμα του Σαρωνικού κόλπου, στην κεντρική Ελλάδα. Για να επιτευχθεί η αναπαράσταση της παλαιοπεριβαλλοντικής εξέλιξης της περιοχής, πραγματοποιήθηκε ανάλυση της μακροπανίδας μαλακίων που συλλέχθηκαν από πυρήνα γεώτρησης στον κόλπο της Ελευσίνας με ονομασία S2P. Οι μέθοδοι που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν σε αυτήν τη μελέτη περιλαμβάνουν ποιοτική - ποσοτική - στατιστική ανάλυση των πανιδικών δειγμάτων, μακροσκοπική περιγραφή της λιθολογίας, ραδιοχρονολόγηση υλικού του πυρήνα και υπολογισμό των ποσοστών άμμου/αργίλου-ιλύος. Από ένα σύνολο 10500 πανιδικών δειγμάτων, προσδιορίστηκαν 6661 μοναδικά άτομα, τα οποία ανήκουν σε 44 γένη μαλακίων. Διακρίθηκαν τέσσερις πανιδικές συναθροίσεις: η παλαιότερη συνάθροιση D («απολιθωμένη») αποτελείται από αποστρογγυλεμένα και περιασβεστωμένα δείγματα, η συνάθροιση C (γλυκών - υφάλμυρων υδάτων) περιλαμβάνει είδη γλυκών/υφάλμυρων υδάτων όπως τα Theodoxus sp. και Hydrobia sp. και χαμηλές τιμές πανιδικών δεικτών (Taxa (S), Shannon-Wiener H’, Πυκνότητα) η συνάθροιση B (ανοιχτής λιμνοθάλασσας) αποτελείται από τα θαλάσσιας-υφάλμυρης διαβίωσης είδη Cerastoderma glaucum, Mytilaster marioni, Hydrobia sp. και ενδιάμεσες τιμές πανιδικών δεικτών, και τέλος η συνάθροιση Α (θαλάσσια) συμπεριλαμβάνει θαλάσσια είδη (κυρίως Bornia sebetia, Corbula gibba, Myrtea spinifera, Nucula nitidosa, Timoclea ovata, Bittium reticulatum και Turritella communis) και υψηλές τιμές πανιδικών δεικτών. O κόλπος της Ελευσίνας, επηρεάζεται από τη θάλασσα (θαλάσσιες υπερχειλίσεις), λόγω της Ολοκαινικής ανόδου της στάθμης της θάλασσας και μέσα σε ~3.000 χρόνια μετατρέπεται από γλυκού νερού περιβάλλον σε κλειστή λιμνοθάλασσα γλυκού – υφάλμυρου νερού ενώ τελικά συνδέεται με την θάλασσα και μετατρέπεται σε ανοικτή λιμνοθάλασσα. Περίπου στα 10,5 χιλιάδες χρόνια πριν από σήμερα το περιβάλλον έγινε θαλάσσιο, με περιοδικά ανοξικά επεισόδια που αντιστοιχούν σε περιορισμένη επικοινωνία με την ανοιχτή θάλασσα.

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