Τα βενθονικά τρηματοφόρα ως περιβαλλοντικοί δείκτες στο σύγχρονο θαλάσσιο οικοσύστημα του Θερμαϊκού κόλπου = Benthic foraminifera as environmental indices in the marine ecosystem of Thermaikos Gulf.

Σοφία Νικόλαος Γεωργίου


Στην παρούσα διπλωματική εργασία διερευνώνται οι συναθροίσεις σύγχρονων βενθονικών τρηματοφόρων τόσο ζωντανών όσο και νεκρών, από δείγματα επιφανειακών ιζημάτων πυθμένα τα οποία συλλέχθηκαν από το εσωτερικό τμήμα του Θερμαϊκού κόλπου στο βόρειο Αιγαίο. Επιπλέον, μελετήθηκε και η χρήση των τρηματοφόρων ως περιβαλλοντικοί δείκτες, με την εφαρμογή δυο δεικτών, του FSI και του Foram-AMBI. Η περιοχή αυτή του Θερμαϊκού κόλπου επιλέχθηκε, καθώς είναι μια περιοχή ζωτικής σημασίας για την πόλη της Θεσσαλονίκης και γενικά του βορείου Αιγαίου και δεν έχει πραγματοποιηθεί στο παρελθόν μελέτη βάσει των βενθονικών τρηματοφόρων. Για την επίτευξη της εργασίας πραγματοποιήθηκε δειγματοληψία από 5 σταθμούς για 4 διαφορετικούς μήνες. Από τα δείγματα αυτά, τα τρηματοφόρα που συλλέχθηκαν αναγνωρίστηκαν σε επίπεδο γένους και είδους. Στη συνέχεια μελετήθηκε η κατανομή τους μέσα στον κόλπο και η επίδραση που δέχονται από τους διάφορους φυσικοχημικούς παράγοντες που μετρήθηκαν στην περιοχή, όπως βαρεά μέταλλα, αλατότητα, βροχοπτώσεις, χλωροφύλλη-a, διαλυμένο οξυγόνο (DO), θερμοκρασία (Τ), pH, αιωρούμενα σωματίδια (TDS) και εύφωτη ζώνη (δίσκος Secchi). Επίσης, έγινε προσπάθεια χαρακτηρισμού της οικολογικής ποιότητας του κόλπου με την εφαρμογή των δεικτών FSI και Foram-AMBI, οι οποίοι υπολογίζονται βάσει των συναθροίσεων των τρηματοφόρων. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας αυτής έδειξαν πως η συνολική μικροπανίδα (νεκρά+ζωντανά) είναι παρόμοια για τους 4 μήνες, με τα ευαίσθητα είδη να επικρατούν στο δυτικό τμήμα του κόλπου, ενώ στον υπόλοιπο τα ανθεκτικά, ενώ στις ζωντανές συναθροίσεις, τα ευαίσθητα είδη επικρατούν μόνο στον S2 σταθμό. Στο Θερμαϊκό κόλπο παρατηρήθηκαν επίσης, υψηλές τιμές διαλυμένου οξυγόνου, ποικιλότητας και αριθμού ζωντανών ατόμων, αν και χαρακτηρίζεται ως ευτροφικός κόλπος. Τέλος, οι δείκτες FSI και Foram-AMBI παρουσίασαν διαφορετικά αποτελέσματα, με τον πρώτο να χαρακτηρίζει την οικολογική κατάσταση του κόλπου από ελλιπή ως μέτρια και τον δεύτερο καλή.

The present master thesis deals with the study of assemblages of recent benthic foraminifera, both dead and living. Sampling of the surface sediment was carried out in the innermost part of the Thermaikos Gulf (Thessaloniki Bay), in North Aegean. Two biotic indices, the FSI and the Foram-AMBI, were also applied to determine the ecological quality status of the studied area. Thermaikos Gulf was chosen because it is an area with a vital significance for the city of Thessaloniki and the North Aegean in general and a study based on benthic foraminifera has never been carried out in the past. Samples were collected from 5 stations for 4 different months through the year. The foraminifera specimens have been picked in each sample and identified in genera and species level. The foraminifera distribution and the abiotic parameters were studied, like heavy metals, salinity, precipitation, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature (T), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and euphotic zone (Secchi disc). Finally, the two biotic indices were used based on the living foraminifera assemblages. The results of the study showed that the total assemblages (dead+living) are similar in each month, with the sensitive foraminifera being abundant at the western part of the gulf and the stress-tolerant in the rest of the gulf, while in the living assemblages the sensitive foraminifera are abundant only in station S2. The studied area presents high levels of dissolved oxygen, diversity and high numbers of living individuals, even though Thermaikos is considered as an eutrophicated gulf. As far as the two biotic indices, they present different results. According to the FSI, the inner Thermaikos gulf presents a poor to medium ecological quality status, but according to Foram-AMBI it presents a good ecological quality status.

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