Fossil bovids from the new excavations in Pikermi (Attica, Greece): study of the craniodental material = Απολιθωμένα βοοειδή από τις νέες ανασκαφές στο Πίκερμι (Αττική, Ελλάδα): Μελέτη κρανιοδοντικού υλικού.

Stamatina Dimitrios Sklavounou,


In the present thesis, the study and taxonomic determination of craniodental material belonging to individuals of the family Bovidae, from the excavation sites PV1 and PV3 of Pikermi - Attica, is presented. Pikermi takes its place among the most important fossil-bearing localities for the Upper Miocene of Europe and has been extensively excavated from the 19th century to the present day. Bovid specimens account for the vast majority of the collected findings. The studied specimens were compared with presently described material, belonging to taxa typical to the locality. Furthermore, detailed measurements were taken on the available craniodental elements and then compared to sets of comparative data, either measured by the author or collected from the relevant literature. Overall, 110 specimens were studied and -all but 5, which remained unidentified- were assigned to the species Tragoportax amalthea, Miotragocerus valenciennesi, Gazella capricornis, Oioceros rothii, Palaeoreas lindermayeri, Palaeoryx pallasi, Sporadotragus sp. and Protragelaphus skouzesi. The variability of cranial morphology for the identified material was then discussed and cases of particular interest -such as possible indications of sexual dimorphism, or the presence of species atypical to the locality- were pointed out. Differences in the bovid content between the two sites were also discussed in an evolutionary and palaeoecological context. The analysis of the palaeoecological aspect was carried out with the provisional census of individuals from the available material and its classification by feeding habits. The results were found not to be in conflict with the prevailing palaeoenvironmental reconstructions for the locality. Lastly, comments on the palaeopathology and possible taphonomic alteration of particular specimens were provided.
Keywords: Bovidae, Greco-Iranian, Turolian, Pikermi, Systematics, Craniodental, Osteo-metry, Palaeobiogeography, Palaeoecology

Στην παρούσα εργασία, παρουσιάζεται η μελέτη και ο ταξινομικός προσδιορισμός κρανιοδοντικού υλικού ατόμων της οικογένειας Bovidae, από τις ανασκαφικές θέσεις PV1 και PV3 του Πικερμίου Αττικής. Το Πικέρμι συγκαταλέγεται στις πλέον σημαντικές Ευρωπαϊκές απολιθωματοφόρες θέσεις του Ανώτερου Μειόκαινου της Ευρώπης και έχει γίνει στόχος εκτεταμένων ανασκαφών, από τον 19ο αιώνα έως και σήμερα. Τα βοοειδή αποτελούν την πλέον πολυπληθή ομάδα από τα ευρήματα που έχουν συλλεχθεί. Το υπό μελέτη υλικό συγκρίθηκε με περιγραφές της μορφολογίας τυπικών ταξινομικών ομάδων στις δεδομένες θέσεις. Επιπλέον, λεπτομερείς μετρήσεις πάρθηκαν στα διαθέσιμα κρανιοδοντικά στοιχεία και έπειτα συγκρίθηκαν με σύνολα συγκριτικών δεδομένων, τα όποια, είτε μετρήθηκαν επίσης από τον συγγραφέα είτε ανασύρθηκαν από τη διαθέσιμη βιβλιογραφία. Συνολικά, 110 δείγματα μελετήθηκαν και όλα -πλην 5, τα οποία παρέμειναν δίχως προσδιορισμό- αποδόθηκαν στα είδη Tragoportax amalthea, Miotragocerus valenciennesi, Gazella capricornis, Oioceros rothii, Palaeoreas lindermayeri, Palaeoryx pallasi, Sporadotragus sp. και Protragelaphus skouzesi. Η ποικιλότητα της κρανιακής μορφολογίας του υλικού που εξετάστηκε, συζητήθηκε στη συνέχεια και περιπτώσεις με ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον -όπως πιθανές ενδείξεις φυλετικού διμορφισμού, ή η παρουσία μη-τυπικού είδους στις δεδομένες θέσεις- επισημάνθηκαν. Διαφορές στις αναλογίες και την κρανιακή μορφολογία του περιεχομένου σε είδη ανάμεσα στις δύο θέσεις συζητήθηκαν επίσης, υπό εξελικτικό και παλαιοοικολογικό πρίσμα. Η παλαιοοικολογική ανάλυση πραγματοποιήθηκε με τον ενδεικτικό υπολογισμό πληθυσμών ατόμων από το διαθέσιμο υλικό και την κατηγοριοποίηση του κατά διατροφικές συνήθειες. Τα αποτελέσματα δεν έδειξαν κάποια απόκλιση από τις επικρατούσες παλαιοπεριβαλλοντικές ανακατασκευές για την περιοχή. Τέλος, παρασχέθηκαν παλαιοπαθολογικά και ταφονομικά σχόλια για συγκεκριμένα δείγματα.
Λέξεις-κλειδιά: Βοοειδή, Ελληνο-Ιρανική, Τουρόλιο, Πικέρμι, Συστηματική, Κρανιοδο-ντικό, Οστεομετρία, Παλαιοβιογεωγραφία, Παλαιοοικολογία

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