Mineralogical, geochemical and structural - control study of the hydrothermal alterations and the ore mineralization at Vathi porphyry Cu - Au +-U +- mO SYSTEM, N.Greece

Christos L. Stergiou


Τhe Vathi porphyry Cu–Au±U±Mo mineralization occurs in the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province, 18.5 km NW of Kilkis city at N. Greece. Α trachydacite porphyry and quartz monzonite dikes (18-17 Ma), which emplacement was structurally controlled by the Tertiary evolution of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, host the mineralization. Genetically the mineralization is linked to the quartz monzonite dikes which intrude the trachydacite porphyry and the crystalline basement rocks of the Vertiskos Unit. The trachydacite porphyry is affected by propylitic alteration, which is overprinted by an extended sericitic alteration. The quartz monzonite is affected by potassic alteration which is also overprinted by sericitic alteration. Stockwork, sheeted veins and oxidized pyrite, chalcopyrite and quartz D-type veins, outcrop in the trachydacite porphyry. Locally, a strongly potassically altered structural trend controls the qtz-monzonite emplacement, while elsewhere the quartz monzonite appears venting the trachydacite porphyry and creates a hydrothermally altered massive phreato-magmatic breccia. Disseminated and vein-type mineralization consisting of pyrite and chalcopyrite is found in the quartz monzonite and along the potassically altered area of the trachydacite porphyry. At depth, the most common mineralization consists of disseminated chalcopyrite – bornite – molybdenite – magnetite – native gold. The microscopic study of drill core samples revealed additionally the presence in depth of disseminated pyrite – chalcopyrite – stibnite, and of vein-type sphalerite – galena – arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite – pyrite – chalcopyrite mineralization. Along and near the surface a characteristic and extent supergene oxidation zone is developed dominated by iron and copper oxides and meta-torbernite, while deeper it is followed by a restricted secondary enrichment zone which consists mainly of chalcocite and covellite. The Vathi porphyry style mineralization bears exceptional enrichment in U and REEs which is unusual for porphyry systems. It shares several features in common to the Skouries porphyry Cu-Au deposit, in the adjacent Chalkidiki district and it could be a promising future exploration target for gold and REEs.

Στη Βάθη 18.5 χλμ ΒΔ του Κιλκίς στα όρια της Σερβομακεδονικής μεταλλογενετικής επαρχίας εντοπίζεται μεταλλοφορία Cu–Au±U±Mo πορφυριτικού τύπου. Ένας τραχειδακιτικός πορφύρης και διεισδύσεις χαλαζιακού μονζονίτη (18-17 Ma), η τοποθέτηση των οποίων ελέγχεται από την Τριτογενή τεκτονική της Σερβομακεδονικής Μάζας, φιλοξενούν την μεταλλοφορία. Γενετικά η μεταλλοφορία συνδέεται με τις διεισδύσεις του χαλαζιακού μονζονίτη, οι οποίες τέμνουν τον τραχειδακιτικό πορφύρη και τα περιβάλλοντα κρυσταλλοσχιστώδη πετρώματα του υποβάθρου της ενότητας Βερτίσκου. Ο τραχειδακιτικός πορφύρης χαρακτηρίζεται από μια προπυλιτική ζώνη εξαλλοίωσης, η οποία επικαλύπτεται από μια εκτεταμένη σερικιτική εξαλλοίωση. Ο χαλαζιακός μονζονίτης χαρακτηρίζεται από μια ποτασσική ζώνη εξαλλοίωσης, η οποία επίσης επικαλύπτεται από μια σερικιτίωση. Στον τραχειδακιτικό πορφύρη παρατηρούνται πλέγματα φλεβιδίων με οξειδωμένη μεταλλοφορία, παράλληλες φλέβες και D-τύπου φλέβες οξειδωμένου σιδηροπυρίτη, χαλκοπυρίτη και χαλαζία. Τοπικά μια έντονα ποτασσικά εξαλλοιωμένη τεκτονική ζώνη ελέγχει την παρουσία του χαλαζιακού μονζονίτη, ενώ αλλού συνδεόμενο με αυτόν εντοπίζεται ένα μαζώδες φρεατομαγματικό λατυποπαγές το οποίο διεισδύει στον τραχειδακιτικό πορφύρη. Διάσπαρτη και φλεβική μεταλλοφορία σιδηροπυρίτη – χαλκοπυρίτη εντοπίζεται στο χαλαζιακό μονζονίτη και σε βάθος στον τραχειδακιτικό πορφύρη. Σε μεγαλύτερα βάθη διασπορές σιδηροπυρίτη – χαλκοπυρίτη – βορνίτη – μολυβδαινίτη – μαγνητίτη – αυτοφυούς χρυσού περιγράφουν την μεταλλοφορία πορφυριτικού τύπου. Η μικροσκοπική μελέτη δειγμάτων προερχόμενων από γεώτρηση εντόπισε την παρουσία τριών ακόμη μεταλλοφοριών, μιας διάσπαρτης σιδηροπυρίτη – χαλκοπυρίτη – αντιμονίτη, και δυο φλεβικού τύπου, μία σφαλερίτη – γαληνίτη – αρσενοπυρίτη και μία μαγνητοπυρίτη – σιδηροπυρίτη – χαλκοπυρίτη. Τέλος, χαρακτηριστική είναι η επιφανειακή αλλά και σε βάθος παρουσία σιδηρούχων και χαλκούχων οξειδίων και μετα-τορβερνίτη τα οποία σχηματίζουν μια εκτεταμένη ζώνη οξείδωσης η οποία ακολουθείται βαθύτερα από μια μικρής έκτασης ζώνη δευτερογενή εμπλουτισμού αποτελούμενη κυρίως από χαλκοσίνη και κοβελλίνη. Η πορφυριτικού τύπου μεταλλοφορία της Βάθης χαρακτηρίζεται από υψηλές συγκεντρώσεις Au, αλλά και U και ορισμένων REEs το οποίο δεν είναι σύνηθες για τα πορφυριτικά συστήματα, και θα μπορούσε να αποτελέσει μελλοντικό ερευνητικό στόχο για χρυσό και REEs.  

Πλήρες Κείμενο:



Agostini, S., Doglioni, C., Innocenti, F., Manetti, P., and Tonarini, S., 2010, On the geodynamics of the Aegean rift, Tectonophysics, v. 488, p. 7-21.

Anderson, D.L., 2007, New theory of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 384 p.

Andronopoulos, B., 1968, The uranium mineralization at Vathi, Kilkis, IGSR unpubl. Report, Athens (in Greek), 12 p.

Armstron, F.C., 1974, Uranium resources of the future-''porphyry''uranium deposits, Formation of uranium ore deposits symposium, International Atomic Energy Agency, Athens, Greece.

Berger, B.R., Ayuso, R.A., Wynn, J.C., and Seal, R.R., 2008, Preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report, 2008–1321, p. 55.

Bertrand, G., Guillou-Frottier, L., and Loiselet, C., 2014, Distribution of porphyry copper deposits along the western Tethyan and Andean subduction zones: Insights from a paleotectonic approach, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 60, p. 174-190.

Bi, X., Cornell, D.H., and Hu, R., 2002, REE composition of primary and altered feldspar from the mineralized alteration zone of alkaline intrusive rocks, western Yunnan Province, China, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 19, p. 69-78.

Bonev, N., Dilek, Y., Hanchar, J. M., Bogdanov, K., and Klain, L., 2012, Nd–Sr–Pb isotopic composition and mantle sources of Triassic rift Units in the Serbo-Macedonian and the western Rhodope Massifs (Bulgaria–Greece), Geological Magazine, v. 149, p. 146-152.

Bonin, B., Sekkal, A.-A., Bussy, F., Ferrag, S., 1998, Alkali-calcic and alkaline post-orogenic (PO) granite magmatism: petrologic constraints and geodynamic settings, Lithos, v. 45, p. 45-70.

Bristol, S.K., Spry, P.G., Voudouris, P.Ch., Melfos, V., Mathur, R.D., Fornadel, A.P., and Sakellaris, G.A., 2015, Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the formation of shear-zone hosted Cu–Au–Bi–Te mineralization in the Stanos area, Chalkidiki, northern Greece, Elsevier, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 66, p. 266–282.

Brun, J.P., and Sokoutis, D., 2007, Kinematics of the southern Rhodope Core Complex (North Greece), International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 99, p. 109–138.

Brun, J.-P. and Faccenna, C., 2008, Exhumation of high-pressure rocks driven by slab rollback, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 272, p. 1–7.

Burg, J.-P., 2002, Tectonic processes, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers Co. Ltd., Oxford, UK, http://www.eolss.net/.

Burg, J.P., 2012, Rhodope: From Mesozoic convergence to Cenozoic extension, Review of petro-structural data in the geochronological frame, Journal of the Virtual Explorer, v. 39, p. 1–44.

Candela, P.A., and Holland, H.D., 1986, A mass transfer model for copper and molybdenum in magmatic hydrotheral systems: The origin of porphyry-type ore deposits, Economic Geology, v. 81, p. 1−19.

Cao, M., Qin, K., Li, G., Jin, L., Evans, N.J., and Yang, X., 2014, Baogutu: an example of reduced porphyry Cu deposit in western Junggar, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 56, p. 159-180.

Carten, R.B., White, W.H., and Stein, H.J., 1993, High-grade, graniterelated molybdenum systems: classification and origin, in Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, v. 40, p. 521-554.

Cashman, K.V., and Mangan, M.T., 1994, Physical aspects of magmatic degassing II, Constraints on vesiculation processes from textural studies of eruptive products: Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 30, p. 447–478.

Cathles, L.M., and Shannon, R., 2007, How potassium silicate alteration suggests the formation of porphyry copper deposits begins with the nearly explosive but barren expulsion of large volumes of magmatic water, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 262, p. 92−108.

Chatzipetros, A., Kiratzi, A., Sboras, S., Zouros, N., and Pavlides, S., 2013, Active faulting in the north-eastern Aegean Sea Islands, Tectonophysics, v. 597, p. 106-122.

Chávez, W.X., Jr., 2000, Supergene oxidation of copper depos­its—Zoning and distribution of copper oxide minerals, Society of Economic Geologists Newsletter, v. 41, p. 10–21.

Christofides, G., D'amico, C., Del Moro, A., Eleftheriadis, G., and Kyriakopoulos, C., 1990, Rb/Sr geochronology and geochemical characters of the Sithonia plutonic complex (Greece), European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 2, p. 79–87.

Condie, K., C., 1997, Plate tectonics and crustal evolution, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 282 p.

Corbett, G.J., and Leach, T.M., 1998, Southwest Pacific gold-copper systems: Structure, alteration and mineralization, Special Publication, Society of Economic Geologists, v. 6, 238 p.

Dal Piaz, G., V., Bistacchi, A., and Massironi, M., 2003, Geological outline of the Alps, Episodes, v. 26, p. 175-180.

Davies, J., H. and von Blanckenburg, F., 1995, Slab breakoff: A model of lithosphere detachment and its test in the magmatism and deformation of collisional orogens, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 129, 85-102.

de Boorder, H., Spakman, W., White, S.,H., and Wortel, M.,J.,R., 1998, Late Cenozoic mineralization, orogenic collapse and slab detachment in the European Alpine Belt, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 164, p. 569-575.

de Launay, L., 1913, Traité de métallogénie: gîtes minéraux et métallifères: gisements, recherche, production et commerce des minéraux utiles et minerais, description des principales mines (3 volumes), Ch. Béranger, Paris, 934 p.

de Wet, AP., Miller, A, Bickle, M.J., and Chapman, H.J., 1989, Geology and geochronology of the Amea, Sithonia and Ouranopolis intrusions, Chalkidiki Peninsula, Northern Greece, Tectonophysics, v. 161, p. 65-79.

de Vos, W., Batista, M. J., Demetriades, A., Duris, M., Lexa, J., Lis, J., Marsina, K., O’Conor, P.J., 2005, Metallogenic mineral provinces and world class ore deposits in Europe, Geochemical Atlas of Europe, v. 1, p. 43-49.

Dilek, Y., Shallo, M., and Furnes, H., 2005, Rift-drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction zone tectonics of Albanian ophiolites, International Geology Review, v. 47, p. 147–176.

Dilek, Y., 2006, Collision tectonics of the Mediterranean region: Causes and consequences, Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 409.

Dilek, Y., Altunkaynak, S., and Oner, Z., 2009, Syn-extensional granitoids in the Menderes core complex and the late Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Aegean province, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, v. 321, p. 197–223.

Dimitriadis, S., 1973, Callait (turquoise) in a weathered trachyte rock of Vathi Kilkis area, Annales Geologiques des Pays Helleniques, v. 25, p. 328-332 (in Greek).

Dimitriadis, S., and Godelitsas, A., 1991, Evidence for high pressure metamorphism in the Vertiskos Group of the Serbomacedonian Massif: The eclogite of Nea Roda, Chalkidiki, Bulletin of Geological Society of Greece, v. 25, p. 67-80.

Dimou, E., 1989, Native minerals in rocks and mineralizations of Greece and their significance, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, v. XXIII/2, p. 207-223.

Dinter, D.A., and Royden, L., 1993, Late Cenozoic extension in northeastern Greece: Strymon Valley detachment system and Rhodope metamorphic core complex, Geology, v. 21, p. 45-48.

Dixon, J. and Dimitriadis, S., 1984, Metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks from the Serbo – Macedonian Massif, near Lake Volvi, North – East Greee, Journal of Geological Society, Special Publication, v. 17, p. 603-618.

Doglioni, C., Agostini, S., Crespi, M., Innocenti, F., Manetti, P., Riguzzi, F., and Savaşçin, M.Y., 2002, On the extension in western Anatolia and the Aegean sea. Journal of Virtual Explorer, v. 8, p. 169–184.

Ducea, M.N., Paterson, S.R., and DeCelles, P.G., 2015, High-volume magmatic events in subduction systems, Elements, v. 11, p. 99-104.

Duggen, S., Hoernle, K., Van Den Bogaard P., and Garbe-Schonberg, D., 2005, Post-collisional transition from subduction to intraplate-type magmatism in the westernmost mediterranean: evidence for continental-edge delamination of subcontinental lithosphere, Journal of Petrology, v. 46, p. 1155–1201.

Dumurdzanov, N., Serafimovski, T., and Burchfiel, B.C., 2004, Evolution of the Neogene-Pleistocene basins of Macedonia, Geological Society of America, Digital Map and Chart Series, v. 1, p. 1-20.

Duretz, T., Schmalholz, M., and Gerya, T.,V., 2012, Dynamics of slab detachment, Geochemical, Geophysics, Geosystem. v. 13, p. 17.

Economou-Eliopoulos, M., and Eliopoulos, D., 1993, Platinum, palladium and gold content in the porphyry-Cu systems of the Vertiskos formations, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, v. XXVIII/2, p. 393-405.

Einaudi M.T., 1997, Mapping altered and mineralized rocks: An introduction to the Anaconda method: Unpublished report, Stanford, California, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, 16 p.

Eldorado Gold SA, 2016, http://www.eldoradogold.com/assets/operations-and-projects/europe/default.aspx.

Eliopoulos, D.G., and Economou-Eliopoulos, M., 1991, Platinum-group element and gold contents in the Skouries porphyry copper deposit, Chalkidiki peninsula, northern Greece, Economic Geology, v. 86, p. 740-749.

Eliopoulos, D.G., Economou-Eliopoulos, M., and Zelyaskova-Panayiotova, M., 2014, Critical factors controlling Pd and Pt potential in porphyry Cu–Au deposits: evidence from the Balkan Peninsula, Geosciences, v. 4, p. 31-49.

Filippidis, Α., Kougoulis, C., Michailidis, K., 1988, Sr-bearing stilbite in a quartz-monzonite from Vathi, Kilkis, Northern Greece, Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, v. 68, p. 67-76.

Frei, R., 1992, Isotope (Pb, Rb-Sr,S,O,C,U-Pb) geochemical investigations on Tertiary intrusives and related mineralizations in the Serbomacedonian Pb-Zn, Sb+Cu-Mo metallogenic province in Northern Greece, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland, Ph.D. Thesis, 231 p.

Frei, R., 1996, The extend of inner mineral isotope equilibrium: a systematic bulk U-Pb and Pb step leaching (PbSL) isotope study of individual minerals from a Tertiary granite of lerissos (northern Greece), European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 8, p. 1175–1189.

Fornadel, A.P, Voudouris, P, Spry P.G, and Melfos, V., 2012, Mineralogical, stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu-Mo and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece, Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 105, p. 85-111.

Fytikas, M., Innocenti, F., Manetti, P., Mazzuoli, R., Peccerillo, A., and Villari, L., 1984, Tertiary to Quaternary Evolution of Volcanism in the Aegean region, in Dixon, J.E., Robertson, A.H.F., (Eds.), The Geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean: Geological Society Special Publication, v. 17, p. 687–699.

Gilg, H.A., 1993, Geochronology (K–Ar), fluid inclusion, and stable isotope (C, O, H) studies of skarn, porphyry copper, and carbonate hosted Pb–Zn (Ag–Au) replacement deposits in the Kassandra mining district (eastern Chalkidiki, Greece), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 153 pp.

Gilg, H.A., and Frei, R., 1994, Chronology of magmatism and mineralization in the Kassandra mining area, Greece: The potentials and limitations of dating hydrothermal illites, Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, v. 58, p. 2107-2122.

Green, T.H., and Pearson, N.J., 1985, Experimental determination of REE partition coefficients between amphibole and basaltic to andesitic liquids at high pressure, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49, p. 1465–1468.

Gupta, A.K., and Fyfe, W.S., 2003, The young potassic rock, Ane Books, New Delhi, 370 pp.

Gustafson, L.B., and Hunt, J.P., 1975, The porphyry copper deposit at El Salvador, Chile, Economic Geology, v. 70, p. 857- 912.

Gustafson, L.B., 1978, Some major factors of porphyry copper genesis, Economic Geology, v. 73, p. 600−607.

Hahn, A., Rankin, A., Treloar, P., Naden, J., Forward, P., and Kilias, S.P., 2010, Hydrothermal Pb-Zn-Au-Ag and Cu-Au mineralisation in the Kassandra mine district, N. Greece: a metallogenetic model with regional economic implications?, Abstract Volume of the XIX Carpatho-Balkanian Geological Association Congress, v. 39 , p. 151-152.

Hahn, A., Naden, J., Treloar, P.J., Kilias, S.P., Rankin, A.H., and Forward, P., 2012, A new time frame for the mineralization in the Kassandra mine district, N Greece: deposit formation during metamorphic core complex exhumation, Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 96, p. 1079-1099.

Harangi, S., Downes, H., and Seghedi, I., 2006, Tertiary–Quaternary subduction processes and related magmatism in the Alpine–Mediterranean region. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, v. 32, p. 167–190.

Harris, N.B.W., Pearce, J.A., Tindle, A.G., 1986, Geochemical characteristics of collision-zone magmatism, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 19, p. 67-81.

Hartley, A.J., and Rice, C.M., 2005, Controls on supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the Central Andes—A review and discussion, Mineralium Deposita, v. 40, p. 515–525.

Hastie, A.R., Kerr, A.C., Pearce, J.A., Mitchell, S.F., 2007, Classification of altered volcanic island arc rocks using immobile trace elements: development of the Th-Co discrimination diagram, Journal of Petrology, v. 48, p. 2341-2357.

Hedenquist, J.W., and Lowenstern, J.B., 1994, The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits, Nature, v. 370, p. 519-527.

Hedenquist, J.W., Arribas Jr.,A., and Reynolds, J.R., 1998, Evolution of an intrusion-centered hydrothermal system: Far Southeast–Lepanto porphyry and epithermal Cu–Au deposits, Philippines, Economic Geology, v. 93, p. 373–404.

Heinrich, C.A., 2005, The physical and chemical evolution of low-salinity magmatic fluids at the porphyry to epithermal transition: a thermodynamic study, Mineralium Deposita, v. 39, p. 864–889.

Hemley, J.J., Cygan, G.L., Fein, J.B., Robinson, G.R., and D’Angelo, W.M., 1992, Hydrothermal ore-forming processes in the light of studies in rock buffered systems: I. Iron-copper-zinc-lead sulfide solubility relations, Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1–22.

Henley, R.W., and Berger, B.R., 2012, Pyrite–sulfosalt reactions and semimetal fractionation in the Chinkuashih, Taiwan, copper–gold deposit: a 1 Ma paleo‐fumarole." Geofluids, v. 12.3, p. 245-260.

Herodotus, The Histories, A.D. Godley, v. 5.17, s. 2.

Hestie, A.R., Kerr, A.C., Pearce, J.A., and Mitchell, S.F., 2007, Classification of Altered Volcanic Island Arc Rocks using Immobile Trace Elements: Development of the Th-Co Discrimination Diagram, Journal of Petrology, v. 48, p. 2341-2357.

Heuret, A., and Lallemand, S., 2005, Plate motions, slab dynamics and back-arc deformation, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 149, p. 31–51.

Himmerkus, F., Reischmann, T., and Kostopoulos, D., 2006, Late Proterozoic and Silurian basement Units within the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, northern Greece: the significance of terrane accretion in the Hellenides, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, v. 260, p. 35–50.

Himmerkus, F., Anders, B., Reischmann, T., and Kostopoulos, D., 2007, Gondwana-derived terranes in the northern Hellenides, Geological Society of America Memoirs, v. 200, p. 379-390.

Himmerkus, F., Reischmann, T., and Kostopoulos, D., 2009a, Serbo-Macedonian revisited: a Silurian basement terrane from northern Gondwana in the Internal Hellenides, Greece, Tectonophysics, v. 473, p. 20-35.

Himmerkus, F., Reischmann, T., and Kostopoulos, D., 2009b, Triassic rift-related meta-granites in the Internal Hellenides, Greece, Geological Magazine, v. 146, p. 252-265.

Hou, Z., Ma, H., Khin, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, M., Wang, Z., and Pan, G., 2003, The Himalayan Yulong porphyry copper belt; product of largescale strike-slip faulting in eastern Tibet, Economic Geology, v. 98, p. 125-145.

Ioannidis, K., and Kelepertzis, A., 1974, Herson, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Jankovic, S., 1977, The copper deposits and geotectonic setting of the Tethyan Eurasian Metallogenic Belt, Mineralium Deposita, v. 12, p. 37–47.

Jankovic, S., 1986, Tetheyan Eurasian metallogenic belt: relations of mineral associations and their tectonic setting, Geotectonica et Metallogenia, v. 10, p. 99–124.

John, D.A., Ayuso, R.A., Barton, M.D., Blakely, R.J., Bodnar, R.J., Dilles, J.H., Gray, Floyd, Graybeal, F.T., Mars, J.C., McPhee, D.K., Seal, R.R., Taylor, R.D., and Vikre, P.G., 2010, Porphyry copper deposit model, chap. B of Mineral deposit models for resource assessment: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report, 2010–5070–B, 169 p.

Jolivet, L., and Faccenna, C., 2000, Mediterranean extension and the Africa-Eurasia collision. Tectonics, v. 19, p. 1095–1106.

Jolivet, L., 2001, A comparison of geodetic and finite strain pattern in the Aegean, geodynamic implications, Earth Planetary Science Letters, v. 187, p. 95–104.

Jolivet, L., Faccenna, C., Huet, B., Labrousse, L., Pourhiet, L., Lacombe, O., Lecomte, E., Burov, E., Denèle, Y., Brun, J.-J., Philippon, M., Paul, A., Salaün, G., Karabulut, H., Piromallo, C., Monié, P., Gueydan, F., Okay, A., Oberhänsli, R., Pourteau, A., Augier, R., Gadenne, L., and Driussi, O., 2013, Aegean tectonics: Strain localisation, slab tearing and trench retreat, Tectonophysics, v. 597-598, p. 1-33.

Joplin, G., A., 1968, The shoshonite association – a review, Journal of Geological Society of Australia, v. 15, p. 275-294.

Kalogeropoulos, S.I., Kilias, S.P., Bitzios, D.C., Nicolaou, M., and Both, R.A., 1989, Genesis of the Olympias carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn (Au, Ag) sulfide ore deposit, eastern Chalkidiki Peninsula, northern Greece, Economic Geology, v. 84, p. 1210-1234.

Kalogeropoulos, S.I., Frei, R., Nikolaou, M., and Gerouki, F., 1990, Origin and metallogenetic significance of the Tertiary Stratoni "Granodiorite", Chalkidiki, N. Greece: isotopic and chemical evidence, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, v. 26, p. 23-38.

Kerrich, R., Goldfarb, R.J., and Richards, J.P., 2005, Metallogenic provinces in an evolving geodynamic framework, Economic geology, v. 100, p. 1097-1136.

Kesler, S.E., Chryssoulis, S.L., and Simon, G., 2002, Gold in porphyry copper deposits: its abundance and fate, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 21, p. 103.

Kilias, A., Falalakis, G., and Mountrakis, D., 1997, Alpine tectonometamorphic history of the Serbomacedonian metamorphic rocks: Implication for the Tertiary unroofing of the Serbomacedonian-Rhodope metamorphic complexes (Macedonia, Greece), Mineral Wealth, Athens, v. 105, p. 32-50.

Kilias, A., Falalakis, G., Mountrakis, D., 1999, Cretaceous–Tertiary structures and kinematics of the Serbomacedonian metamorphic rocks and their relation to the exhumation of the Hellenic hinterland (Macedonia, Greece), International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 88, p. 513–531.

Kilias, A., Falalakis, G., Sfeikos, A., Papadimitriou, E., Vamvaka, A., and Gkarlaouni, C., 2013, The Thrace basin in the Rhodope province of NE Greece - A tertiary supradetachment basin and its geodynamic implications, Tectonophysics, v. 595–596, p. 90–105.

Kilias, A.D., Vamvaka, A., Falalakis, G., Sfeikos, A., Papadimitriou, E., Gkarlaouni, C.H., and Karakostas, B., 2015, The Mesohellenic Trough and the Paleogene Thrace Basin on the Rhodope Massif, their Structural Evolution and Geotectonic Significance in the Hellenides, Journal of Geology and Geosciences, v.4, p. 198.

Kockel, F., and Walther, H.W., 1967, Der Rhyolith von Strimonikon, sein tektonischer Rahmen und die junge Lagerstättenbildung in seiner Umgebung (Zentral Mazedonien, Griechenland), Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, v. 7, p. 1–16.

Kockel, F., and Mollat, H., 1972, Zangliverion, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kockel, F., Mollat, H., and Antoniadis, P., 1974, Peninsula of Sithonia, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kockel, F., Mollat, H., and Gundlach, H., 1975, Hydrothermally altered and (copper) mineralized porphyritic intrusions in the Serbo-Macedonian Massif (Greece), Mineralium Deposita, v. 10, p. 195-204.

Kockel, F., Mollat, H., and Antoniadis, P., 1978a, Arnaea, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kockel, F., Mollat, H., and Antoniadis, P., 1978b, Ierissos, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kockel, F., Mollat, H., and Walther, H.W., Antoniadis, P., and Ioannidis, K., 1978c, Stavros, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kockel, F., Mollat, H., and Walther, H.W., Antoniadis, P., and Ioannidis, K., 1978d, Stratoniki, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kockel, F., and Ioannidis K., 1979a, Kilkis, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kochel, F., Mollat, H., Antoniadis, P., and Ioannidis, K., 1979b, Lachanas, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kockel, F., Mollat, H., Antoniadis, P., and Ioannidis, K., 1979c, Sochos, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Kolessar, J., 1970, Geology and copper deposits of the Tyrone district, Guidebook of the Tyrone-Big Hatchet Mountains-Florida Mountains Region, New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, v. 21, p. 127-132.

Kondopoulou, D., and Westphal, M. (1986), Paleomagnetism of the Tertiary intrusives from Chalkidiki (northern Greece), Journal of Geophysics-Zeitschrift fur Geophysik, v. 59, p. 62-66.

Kourou, A., 1991, Lithology, tectonics, geochemistry and metamorphism of a sector of the west part of the Vertiskos Group, The area NE of the lake Agios Vasilios (Koronia), Ph.D. dissertation, AUTh, Thessaloniki, p. 481, (in Greek).

Koukouvelas, I.K., and Aydin, A., 2002, Fault structure and related basins of the North Aegean Sea and its surroundings, Tectonics, v. 21, p. 10-1.

Kounov, A., Seward, D., Burg, J. P., Bernoulli, D., Ivanov, Z., and Handler, R., 2010, Geochronological and structural constraints on the Cretaceous thermotectonic evolution of the Kraishte zone, western Bulgaria, Tectonics, v. 29.

Krohe, A., and Mposkos, E., 2002, Multiple generations of extensional detachments in the Rhodope Mountains (northern Greece): evidence of episodic exhumation of high-pressure rocks, Special Publication, Geological Society of London, v. 204, p. 151-178.

Kroll, T., Müller, D., Seifert, T., Herzig, P.M., and Schneider, A., 2002, Petrology and geochemistry of the shoshonite-hosted Skouries porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Chalkidiki, Greece, Mineralium Deposita, v. 37, p. 137-144.

Kydonakis, K., Gallagher, K., Brun, J.-P., Jolivet, M., Gueydan, F., and Kostopoulos, D., 2014, Upper Cretaceous exhumation of the western Rhodope Metamorphic Province (Chalkidiki Peninsula, northern Greece), Tectonics, v. 33.

Kydonakis, K., Brun, J. P., Sokoutis, D., and Gueydan, F., 2015, Kinematics of Cretaceous subduction and exhumation in the western Rhodope (Chalkidiki block), Tectonophysics, v. 665, p. 218-235.

Le Bas, M,.J., Le Maitre, R.,W., Streckeisen, A., and Zanettin, B., 1986, A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram, Journal of Petrology, v. 27, p. 745-750.

Le Maitre, R.,W., 1989, A Classification of igneous rocks and glossary of terms, Blackwell, Oxford, 193 pp.

Lindgren, W., 1933, Mineral deposits (4th ed.; 3d impression revised), New York, McGraw-Hill, 930 p.

Lips, A.L., 2002, Correlating magmatic–hydrothermal ore deposit formation over time with geodynamic processes in SE Europe, Geological Society of London, Special Publication, v. 204, p. 69–79.

Logan, J.M., and Mihalynuk, M.G., 2014, Tectonic controls on Early Mesozoic paired alkaline porphyry deposit belts (Cu-Au ± Ag-Pt-Pd-Mo) within the Canadian Cordillera, Economic Geology, v. 109, p. 827-858.

Loucks, R.R., 2015, Distinctive composition of copper-ore forming arc magmas, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 61, p. 5-16.

Lowell, J.D., and Guilbert, J.M., 1970, Lateral and vertical alteration-mineralization zoning in porphyry ore deposits, Economic Geology, v. 65, p. 373–408.

MacDonald, G.D., and Arnold, L.C., 1994, Geological and geochemical zoning of the Grasberg Igneous Complex, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 50, p. 143-178.

Mao, J., Pirajno, F., Lehmann, B., Luo, M., and Berzina, A., 2014, Distribution of porphyry deposits in the Eurasian continent and their corresponding tectonic settings, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 79, p. 576-584.

Makris, J., 1985, Geophysics and geodynamic implications for the evolution of the Hellenides, Geological evolution of the Mediterranean Basin, Springer Verlag, New York, p. 231-248.

Marchev, P., Kaiser-Rohrmeier, M., Heinrich, C., Ovtcharova, M., von Quadt, A., and Raicheva, R., 2005, Hydrothermal ore deposits related to post-orogenic extensional magmatism and core complex formation: The Rhodope Massif of Bulgaria and Greece, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 27, p. 53-89.

Markoulis, M., 1970, The carried out exploration program at Vathi on behalf of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE) targeting the uraniferous mineral assemblages of the region, IGSR unpublished report, Athens, 35 p, (in Greek).

McInnes, I.A., Evans, N.J., Fu, F.Q., Garwin, S., Belousova, E., Griffin, W.L., Bertens, A., Sukarna, D., Permanadewi, S., Andrew, R.L., and Deckart, K., 2005, Thermal history analysis of selected Chilean, Indonesian and Iranian porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits, in Porter, T.M., ed., Super porphyry copper and gold deposits: A global perspective, Adelaide, PGC Publishing, v. 1, p. 27−42.

Melidonis, N., 1968, Geological mapping of Vathi, Kilkis, IGSR unpublished report, Athens, 20 p, (in Greek).

Melidonis, N.G., 1972, Geological structure and mineralization of the Pontokerasia area (Central Macedonia, Greece), Annales Geologiques Des Pays Helleniques, v. 24, p. 323-393, (in Greek with English abstract).

Melfos V., Vavelidis M., Arikas K., 2001, A new occurrence of argentopentlandite and gold from the Αu-Αg-rich copper mineralisation in the Paliomylos area, Serbomacedonian Massif, Central Macedonia, Greece, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, v. XXXIV/3, p. 1065-1072.

Melfos, V., Vavelidis, M., Christofides, G., Seidel, E., 2002, Origin and evolution of the Tertiary Maronia porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Thrace, Greece, Mineralium Deposita, 37, 648-668.

Melfos, V. and Voudouris, P.,Ch., 2012, Geological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Aspects for Critical and Rare Metals in Greece, Minerals, v. 2, p. 300-317.

Mouslopoulou, V., Saltogianni, V., Gianniou, M., and Stiros, S., 2014, Geodetic evidence for tectonic activity on the Strymon Fault System, northeast Greece, Tectonophysics, v. 633, p. 246-255.

Mposkos, E., 1983, A mineralogical study of the Au–Ag–Bi–Te–Cu–Co–Ni–As–S ore mineralization in Macedonia, Chemie der Erde, v. 42, p. 281–296.

Müller, D., Kaminski, K., Uhlig, S., Graupner, T., Herzig, P.M., and Hunt, S., 2002, The transition from porphyry-to epithermal-style gold mineralization at Ladolam, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea: a reconnaissance study, Mineralium Deposita, v. 37, p. 61-74.

Neubauer, F., 2002, Evolution of late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic elements in central and southeast Alpine mountain belts: review and synthesis, Tectonophysics, v. 352, p. 87–103.

Neubauer, F., Heinrich, C.A., and Geode ABCD working group, 2003, Late Cretaceous and Tertiary geodynamics and ore deposit evolution of the Alpine–Balkan–Carpathian–Dinaride orogen, Mineral exploration and sustainable development, Millpress, Rotterdam, p.1133-1136.

Nininger, R.D., 1974, The world uranium supply challenge-an appraisal, Formation of uranium ore deposits symposium, International Atomic Energy Agency, Athens, Greece.

Pamic, J., Balen, D., and Herak, M., 2002, The Zagorje-Mid-Transdanubian Zone: origin and geodynamic evolution of Late Paleogene magmatic associations along the Periadriatic- Sava-Vardar magmatic belt, Geodinamica Acta, v. 15, p. 209-231.

Panagos, A., Pe, G.G., and Varnavas, S.P., 1978, The volcanic rocks of Strymonikon – Metamorphosis, Central Macedonia, Greece, Chemie der Erde, v. 37, p. 50-61.

Pan-European Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Reserves [Online], CODE_jan2009.pdfwww.perc.co (accessed Mar. 27, 2012).

Papazachos, B.C., Karakostas, V.G., Papazachos, C.B., Scordilis, E.M., 2000, The geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone and lithospheric kinematics in the Hellenic arc, Tectonophysics, v. 319, p. 275–300.

Paraskevopoulos, G.M., 1958, On the genesis of the W-Sb-ore deposits of the Lachanas region, Central Macedonia, Annales Geologique Des Pays Hellenique, v. 9, p. 227-241.

Pavlides, S.B., and Mountrakis, D.M., 1987, Extensional tectonics of northwestern Macedonia, Greece, since the late Miocene, Journal of Structural Geology, v. 9, p. 385-392.

Pavlides, S. B., Kondopoulou, D. P., Kilias, A. T., and Westphal, M., 1988, Complex rotational deformations in the Serbo-Macedonian massif (north Greece): structural and paleomagnetic evidence, Tectonophysics, v. 145(3), p. 329-335.

Pavlides, S., Mountrakis, D., Kilias, A., and Tranos, M., 1990, The role of strike-slip movements in the extensional area of Northern Aegean (Greece), A case of transtensional tectonics, Annales Tectonicae, Special Issue, v.4, p. 196–211.

Pe-Piper, G., and Piper, D.J., 2002, The igneous rocks of Greece, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 573 p.

Pe-Piper, G., and Piper, D. J., 2006, Unique features of the Cenozoic igneous rocks of Greece, Geological Society of America Special Papers, v. 409, p. 259-282.

Peccerillo, A., and Taylor, S.R., 1976, Geochemistry of Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks of the Kastamonu area, northern Turkey, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 58, p. 63-81.

Persianis, D., Katsikis, I., and Karageorgiou, D., 2010, The genetic hypothesis of the uraniferus mineralization, eastern Chalkidiki (Northern Greece), Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, v. 43, p. 2692-2701.

Perugini, D., Poli, G., Christofides, G., Eleftheriadis, G., Koroneos, A., Soldatos, T., 2004, Mantle-derived and crustal melts dichotomy in northern Greece: spatiotemporal and geodynamic implications, Geological Journal, v. 39, p. 63-80.

Petrascheck, W.E., 1965, Typical features of metallogenetic provinces, Economic Geology, v. 60, p. 1620-34.

Proffett, J.M., 2003, Geology of the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper-gold deposit, Argentina, Economic Geology, v. 98, p. 1535-1574.

Pirajno, F., 2009, Hydrothermal processes and mineral systems, Springer, Netherlands, p. 1250.

Radosavljević, S.A., Stojanović, J.N., Radosavljević-Mihajlović, A.S., and Kašić, V.D., 2013, Polymetallic mineralization of the Boranja orefield, Podrinje Metallogenic District, Serbia: zonality, mineral associations and genetic features, Periodico di Mineralogia, v. 82. p. 61-87.

Raducinović, D., 1974, Zletovska Reka uranium deposit, in proceedings of: Formation of uranium ore deposits, International Atomic Energy Agency, 6-10 May, Athens.

Rice, C.M., Harmon, R.S., and Shepherd, T.J., 1985, Central City, Colorado; the upper part of an alkaline porphyry molybdenum system, Economic Geology, v. 80, p. 1769-1796.

Richards, J.P., 2003, Tectono-magmatic precursors for porphyry Cu–(Mo–Au) deposit formation, Economic Geology, v. 98, p. 1515–1533.

Richards, J.P., 2005, Cumulative factors in the generation of giant calc-alkaline porphyry Cu deposits, in Porter, T.M., ed., Super porphyry copper and gold deposits: A global perspective, Linden Park, South Australia, Porter Geoscience Consulting Publishing, v. 1, p. 7–25.

Richards, J.P., 2009, Postsubduction porphyry Cu-Au and epithermal Au deposits: Products of remelting of subduction-modified lithosphere, Geology, v. 37, p. 247-250.

Richards, J.P., 2011, Magmatic to hydrothermal metal fluxes in convergent and collided margins, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 40, p. 1-26.

Richards, J.P., Spell, T., Rameh, E., Razique, A., and Fletcher, T., 2012, High Sr/Y magmas reflect arc maturity, high magmatic water content, and porphyry Cu±Mo±Au potential: examples from the Tethyan arcs of Central and Eastern Iran and Western Pakistan, Economic Geology, v. 107, p. 295-332.

Richards, J.P., 2013, Giant ore deposits formed by optimal alignments and combinations of geological processes, Nature Geoscience, v. 6, p. 911–916.

Richards, J.P., and Mumin, A.H., 2013, Magmatic-hydrothermal processes within an evolving Earth: Iron oxide-copper-gold and porphyry Cu±Mo±Au deposits, Geology, v. 41, p. 767-770.

Ridley, J., 2013, Ore deposit geology, Cambridge University Press, 409 p.

Rimsaite, J., 1973, Natural alteration of mica of mica and reactions between released ions in mineral deposits, Clays and Clay minerals, v. 23, p. 247-255.

Robb, L., 2013, Introduction to ore-forming processes, John Wiley & Sons, 384 p.

Kaiser-Rohrmeier, M., von Quadt, A., Driesner, T., Heinrich, C. A., Handler, R., Ovtcharova, M., Ivanov, Z.,Petrov, P., Sarov, St., and Peytcheva, I., 2013, Post-orogenic extension and hydrothermal ore formation: High-precision geochronology of the central rhodopian metamorphic core complex (Bulgaria-Greece), Economic Geology, v. 108, p. 691-718.

Rowins, S.M., 1999, Reduced porphyry copper-gold deposits: A newly recognized style of gold mineralization, Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 31, p. A-92.

Rowins, S.M., Reduced porphyry copper-gold deposits: A new variation on an old theme, Geology, v. 28, p. 491-494.

Sagui, C.L., 1928, The ancient mining works of Cassandra, Greece, Economic Geology, v. 23, p. 671-680.

Schenker, F.L., Gerya, T., and Burg, J.-P., 2012, Bimodal behavior of extended continental lithosphere: modeling insight and application to thermal history of migmatitic core complexes, Tectonophysics, v. 579, p. 88–103.

Schildgen, T.F., Yıldırım, C., Cosentino, D., and Strecker, M.R., 2014, Linking slab break-off, Hellenic trench retreat, and uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateaus, Earth-Science Reviews, v. 128, p. 147–168.

Seedorff, E., Barton, M.D., Stavast, W.J.A., and Maher, D.J., 2008, Root zones of porphyry systems: Extending the porphyry model to depth, Economic Geology, v. 103, p. 939−956.

Serafimovski, T., Stefanova, V., and Volkov, A.V., 2010, Dwarf copper-gold porphyry deposits of the Buchim-Damjan-Borov Dol ore district, Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Geology of Ore Deposits, v. 52, p. 179-195.

Sidiropoulos, N., 1991, Lithology, geochemistry, tectonics and metamorphism of the Northewestern part of the Vertiskos Group, The area of the Disoro (Krousia) Mountain, North of Kilkis, AUTh, Thessaloniki, Ph.D. dissertation, p. 592, (in Greek).

Sidorov, A.A., Tomson, I.N., Savva, N.E., Volkov, A.V., Prokofev, V.Y., and Kolova, E.E., 2006, Relation between porphyry deposits and their vein satellites, Doklady earth sciences, v. 409, p. 859-863.

Sievers, Η., and Buijs, B., 2011, Defining critical raw materials, European Commission, European Union Policy on Natuaral Resources.

Sillitoe, R.H., and Bonham, H.F., Jr., 1984, Volcanic landforms and ore deposits: Economic Geology, v. 79, p. 1286-1298.

Sillitoe, R.H., 1993, Gold-rich porphyry copper deposits: geological model and exploration implications, in Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, v. 40, p. 465-478.

Sillitoe, R.H., 1999, Styles of high-sulphidation gold, silver and copper mineralisation in porphyry and epithermal environments, Pacrim’99 Congress, Bali, Indonesia, Parkville, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, p. 29-44.

Sillitoe, R.H., 2002, Some metallogenic features of gold and copper deposits related to alkaline rocks and consequences for exploration, Mineralium Deposita, v. 37, p. 4-13.

Sillitoe, R., H., 2010, Porphyry Copper Systems, Economic Geology, v. 105, p. 3–41.

Sinclair, W.D., 2007, Porphyry deposits, in Goodfellow, W.D., ed., Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major Deposit-Types, District Metallogeny, the Evolution of Geological Provinces, and Exploration Methods: Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication, v. 5, p. 223-243.

Singer, A.D., Berger, I.V., Moring, C.B., 2005, Porphyry copper deposits of the world: database, map, and grade and tonnage models, in US Geological Survey, Open-File Report, 2005–1060.

Siron, C. R., Thompson, J. F., Rhys, D., Baker, T., Russell, S., Tsitsanis, P., and Randall, S., 2014, Structural framework of the Stratoni fault corridor, Kassandra mining district, Northern Greece, in 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Siron C. R., Thompson, J. F., Baker, T., Friedman, R., Tsitsanis, P., Russell, S., Randall, S., Mortensen, J. K., 2016, Magmatic and metallogenic framework of Au-Cu porphyry and polymetallic carbonate-hosted replacement deposits of the Kassandra mining district, Northern Greece, SEG Special Publication, Tethyan Tectonics and Metallogeny, SEG 2016 Conference, Çeşme, Turkey.

Sklavounos, S., Ericsson, T., Filippidis, A., Michailidis, K., and Kougoulis, C., 1992, Chemical, X-ray and Mössbauer investigation of a turquoise from the Vathi area volcanic rocks, Macedonia, Greece, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, v. 10, p. 469–480.

Soldatos T., Koroneos A., Christofides G., Del-Moro A., 2001, Rb-Sr geochronology and origin of the Elatia Plutonite (Hellenic Rhodope Massif, N. Greece) constrained by new Sr isotopic data, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie (Abh.), v. 176, p. 179-209.

Stavropodis. J.D., and Kotopouli, K., 1972, Autunite – a new uranium mineral for Greece, Annales Geologiques Des Pays Helleniques, v. 24, p. 424-432, (in Greek with English abstract).

Stergiou, A., 1995, “CRYST” Program for crystallinity determination, by XRD profile fitting, Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Stergiou, A.C., Rentzeperis, P.J., and Sklavounos, S., 1993, Refinement of the crystal structure of metatorbernite, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, v. 205, p. 1-7.

Stern, R., J., 2002, Subduction zones, Reviews of Geophysicists, v. 40, p. 1012.

Sutphin, D.M., Hammarstrom, J.M., Drew, L.J., Large, D.E., Berger, B.B., Dicken, C.L., and DeMarr, M.W., with contributions from Billa, M., Briskey, J.A., Cassard, D., Lips, A., Pertold, Z., and Roşu, E., 2013, Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield, U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report, 2010–5090–K, 197 p., and GIS data.

Tămaș, Călin G., and Jean P. Milési, 2012, Hydrovolcanic Breccia Pipe Structures-General Features and Genetic Criteria. I. Phreatomagmatic Breccias, Studia UBB Geologia, v. 47, p. 127-147.

Tarkian, M., and Stribrny, B., 1999, Platinum-group elements in porphyry copper deposits: A reconnaissance study, Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 65, p. 161–183.

Taylor, S.R., and McLennan, S.M., 1985, The continental crust; Its composition and evolution; an examination of the geological record preserved in sedimentary rocks, Blackwell, Oxford, 312 p.

Teixeira, N.A., Ganade, C.E., Matos, F., Campos, L.D., and Carvalho, M.T., Naves de, 2015, Alkaline Porphyry Copper Deposits and IOCG – What is the link?, Institutional Repository of Geosciences, 4 p.

Thanasoulas, K., 1979, Geophysical study at the volcanic rocks area of Vathi, Kilkis, National Institut of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Athens, 17 p., (in Greek).

Thymiatis, G., 1995, The ore mineralization in Laodikino–Lipsidri area, Kilkis district, Macedonia, north Greece, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, Ph.D. thesis, 260 p, (in Greek with English abstract).

Thompson, A.J.B., and Thompson, J.F.H., 1998, Atlas of alteration: A field guide to hydrothermal alteration minerals, Geological Association of Canada, Vancouver, p. 119.

Tirel, C., Gueydan, F., Tiberi, C., and Brun, J.-P., 2004, Aegean crustal thickness inferred from gravity inversion, Geodynamical implications, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 228, p. 267–280.

Tompouloglou, C., 1981, Les minéralisations tertiares, type cuivre porphyrique, du massif Serbo-Macédonien (Macédoine, Grèce) dans leur context magmatique (avec un traitement géostatistique pour les données du prospect d'Alexia), Ecole National Supérieure des Mines de Paris, France, Ph.D. thesis, 204 p (in French).

Tornos, F., Velasco, F., Barra, F., and Morata, D., 2010, The Tropezón Cu–Mo–(Au) deposit, Northern Chile: the missing link between IOCG and porphyry copper systems?, Mineralium Deposita, v. 45, p. 313-321.

Tosdal, R.M., and Richards, J.P., 2001, Magmatic and structural controls on the development of porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits, in Richards, J.P., Tosdal, R.M., (Eds.), Structural Controls on Ore Genesis, Society of Economic Geologists Reviews, v. 14, p. 157–181.

Tranos, M.D., Kachev, V.N., and Mountrakis, D.M., 2008, Transtensional origin of the NE-SW Simitli basin along the Strouma (Strymon) Lineament, SW Bulgaria, Journal of Geological Society London, v. 165, p. 499-510.

Tranos, M.D., Eleftheriadis, G.E., and Kilias, A.A., 2009, Philippi granitoid as a proxy for the Oligocene and Miocene crustal deformation in the Rhodope Massif (Eastern Macedonia, Greece), Geotectonic Research, v. 96, p. 69-85.

Tranos, M.,D., and Lacombe, O., 2014, Late Cenozoic faulting in SW Bulgaria: Fault geometry, kinematics and driving stress regimes, Implications for late orogenic processes in the Hellenic hinterland, Journal of Geodynamics, v. 74, p. 32– 55.

Ulrich, T., Gunther, D., and Heinrich, C.A., 1999, Gold concentrations of magmatic brines and the metal budget of porphyry copper deposits, Nature, v. 399, p. 676–679.

van Hunen, J., and Allen, M.B., 2011, Continental collision and slab break-off: A comparison of 3-D numerical models with observations, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 302, p. 27–37.

Vavelidis, M., Kilias, A., Melfos, V., and Schmidt-Mumm, A., 1996, New investigations in the Au–Ag-bearing Cu mineralization in the Koronouda area, Central Macedonia, northern Greece, Terranes of Serbia: The Formation of the Geologic Framework of Serbia and the Adjacent Regions, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, p. 317–322.

Vavelidis, M., and Tarkian, M., 1995, Mineralogy of the gold-silver-bearing copper mineralized zones in the Palyopyrgos (Nea Maditos-Stanos) area, Northern Greece, Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 3, p. 133-143.

Vavelidis, Μ., Melfos, V., and Kilias, A., 1999, The gold-bearing quartz veins in the metamorphic rocks at the Drakontio area, central Macedonia, northern Greece, in Mineral Deposits, Process to Processing, Eds: Stanley, C.J. et al., p. 209-212.

Vavelidis, M., Melfos, V., and Arikas, K., 2000, Mineralogy and structural control of the Au–Ag-rich copper mineralization in the Serbomacedonian Massif, Paliomylos area, Greece, European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 12, p .22.

Vavelidis, M., 2004, Gold deposits and ancient mining activities in Macedonia and Thrace, Thessalonikeon Polis, v. 14, p. 74-93, (in Greek).

Vavelidis, M., and Andreou, S., 2007, Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece, Naturwissenschaften, v. 95, p. 361-366.

Veranis, N., and Tsamantouridis, P., 1991, Using panning method to the exploration of auriferous mineralizations of Krousia metallogenic province, IGME, unpubl. Report, Thessaloniki, 15 p., (in Greek).

Voidomatis, P.S., Pavlides, S.B., and Papadopoulos, G.A., 1990, Active deformation and seismic potential in the Serbomacedonian zone, northern Greece, Tectonophysics, v. 179, p. 1-9.

von Quadt, A., Driesner, T., and Heinrich, C.A., 2004, Geodynamics and Ore Deposit Evolution of the Alpine-Carpathian-Balkan-Dinaride Orogenic System, Swiss Bulletin of Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 84, p. 1-2.

von Quadt, A., Moritz, R., Peytcheva, I., and Heinrich, C.A., 2005, Geochronology and geodynamics of calc-alkaline magmatism and Cu-Au mineralization: The Panagyurishte region of the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Belt (Bulgaria), Ore Geology Reviews, v. 27, p. 95–126.

Volkov, A.V., Serafimovski, T., Alekseev, V.Y., and Tasev, G., 2010, The structural-metallogenic maps of ore districts of FYR of Macedonia, Proceedings of the XIX CBGA Congress, Thessaloniki, Greece, v. 100, p. 359-368.

Voudouris, P., and Alfieris, D., 2005, New porphyry -Cu±Mo occurrences in the north-eastern Aegean, Greece: Ore mineralogy and epithermal relationships, In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 473-476,

Voudouris, P.C., Melfos, V., Spry, P.G., Bindi, L., Kartal, T., Arikas, K., Moritz, R., and Ortelli, M., 2009, Rhenium-rich molybdenite and rheniite in the Pagoni Rachi Mo–Cu–Te–Ag–Au prospect, northern Greece: implications for the Re geochemistry of porphyry-style Cu–Mo and Mo mineralization, The Canadian Mineralogist, v. 47, p. 1013-1036.

Voudouris, P., Melfos, V., Spry, P. G., Bindi, L., Moritz, R., Ortelli, M., and Kartal, T., 2013, Extremely Re-rich molybdenite from porphyry Cu-Mo-Au prospects in northeastern Greece: Mode of occurrence causes of enrichment, and implications for gold exploration, Minerals, v. 3, p. 165-191.

Walther, H.J.J., Kochel, F., Leube, A., Korber, H., and Luttig, G., 1970, Sitochorion, Geological map 1:50.000, IGME, Athens.

Whalen, J.B., Anderson, R.G., Struik, L.C., and Villeneuve, M.E., 2001, Geochemistry and Nd isotopes of the Franηois Lake plutonic suite, Endako batholith: host and progenitor to the Endako molybdenum camp, central British Columbia, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 38, p. 603-618.

Wilkinson, J.J., Wilkinson, C.C., Vry, V.H., Rusk, B.G., Séguel, J., Zentilli, M., and Jeffries, T.E., 2008, Ore fluid chemistry in super-giant porphyry copper deposits [ext. abs.]: Pacrim Congress 2008, Gold Coast, Queensland, 2008, Extended Abstracts: Melbourne, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, p. 295−299.

Wilson, M., and Bianchini, G., 1999, Tertiary–Quaternary magmatism within the Mediterranean and surrounding regions, Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 156, p. 141–168.

Wilson, M., and Downes, H., 2006, Tertiary–Quaternary intra-plate magmatism in Europe and

relationship to mantle dynamics, Geological Society, London, Memoirs, v. 32, p. 147–166.

Winter, J.D., 2001, An introduction to igneous and metamorphic petrology: New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 697 p.

Yigit, O., 2009, Mineral deposits of Turkey in relation to Tethyan metallogeny: implications for future mineral exploration, Economic Geology, v. 104, p. 19-51.

Yigit, O., 2012, A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 46, p. 118-148.

Zagorchev, I., 2007, Structure and tectonic evolution of the Pirin‐Pangaion Structural Zone (Rhodope Massif, southern Bulgaria and northern Greece, Geological Journal, v. 29, p. 241 – 268.

Zhang, S.-H., Zhao, Y., Song, B., Hu, J.-M., Liu, S.,-W., Yang, Y.-H., Chen, F.-K., Liu, X.-M., Liu, J., 2009, Contrasting Late Carboniferous and Late Permian–Middle Triassic intrusive suites from the northern margin of the North China craton: Geochronology, petrogenesis, and tectonic implications, Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 121, p. 181-200.

Zhenhua, Z., Xiaolin, X., Qiang, W., Zhiwei, B., Yuquan, Z., Yingwen, X., Shuangkui, R., 2003, Alkali-rich igneous rocks and related Au and Cu large and superlarge deposits in China, Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, v. 46, pp 1-13.

Zürcher, L., Bookstrom A.A., Hammarstrom, J.M., Mars, J.C., Ludington, S., Zientek, M.L., Dunlap, P., and Wallis, J.C., with contributions from Drew, L.J., Sutphin, D.M., Berger, B.R., Herrington, R.J., Billa, M., Kuşcu, I., Moon, C.J., and Richards, J.P., 2015, Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report, 2010–5090–V, 232 p., and spatial data.

Εισερχόμενη Αναφορά

  • Δεν υπάρχουν προς το παρόν εισερχόμενες αναφορές.