Strong ground motion simulation in the Central Ionian Islands using a hybrid (deterministic and stochastic) approach = Υπολογισμός εδαφικής κίνησης στην περιοχή των Κεντρικών Ιονίων Νήσων με εφαρμογή υβριδικής (αιτιοκρατικής και στοχαστικής) μεθοδολογίας.

Pavlos Konsstantinos Bonatis


The current thesis concerns multiple concepts of engineering seismology that are taken into account in order to perform a complete Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Central Ionian Islands as well as an accurate estimation of strong ground motion for the two strongest earthquakes that occurred in the region during the past few years. In the first chapter, the seismotectonic characteristics of the study area are introduced along with the historical and instrumental seismicity data. In the second chapter, the basic principles and the methodology used for the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment are described, whereas, in the third chapter, the results are presented in terms of seismic hazard maps. The fourth chapter introduces a series of concepts regarding the simulation of strong ground motion. The two case studies are presented along with the simulation parameters used in the computations. The fifth chapter contains the broadband ground motion simulation results. A validation of the resulting simulations is attempted and then the final synthetic spectra and waveforms are provided. In the final chapter, the most critical conclusions are summarized. Limitations, potential implications and future perspectives are also discussed.

    Η παρούσα διπλωματική εργασία διαπραγματεύεται ποικίλες έννοιες της Τεχνικής Σεισμολογίας οι οποίες λαμβάνονται υπόψη με σκοπό την εκπόνηση μίας πλήρους Πιθανολογικής Εκτίμησης της Σεισμικής Επικινδυνότητας για την περιοχή των Κεντρικών Ιονίων Νήσων καθώς επίσης και την προσομοίωση της ισχυρής εδαφικής κίνησης για τους δύο ισχυρότερους σεισμούς που έλαβαν χώρα στην περιοχή μελέτης την τελευταία δεκαετία. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζονται τα σεισμοτεκτονικά χαρακτηριστικά της περιοχής μελέτης όπως επίσης τα δεδομένα ιστορικής και ενόργανης σεισμικότητας. Στο δεύτερο κεφάλαιο περιγράφονται οι βασικές αρχές και η μεθοδολογία που εφαρμόστηκε για την Πιθανολογική Εκτίμηση της Σεισμικής Επικινδυνότητας, ενώ στο τρίτο κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζονται τα αποτελέσματα υπό το πρίσμα χαρτών σεισμικής επικινδυνότητας. Στο τέταρτο κεφάλαιο εισάγεται μία σειρά από έννοιες που συνδέονται την προσομοίωση της ισχυρής εδαφικής κίνησης. Τα δύο επιλεγμένα σενάρια σεισμών παρουσιάζονται μαζί με τις παραμέτρους που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν για τις προσομοιώσεις. Το πέμπτο κεφάλαιο περιέχει τα αποτελέσματα από τις υβριδικές προσομοιώσεις ευρέος φάσματος. Επιπλέον, επιχειρείται επαλήθευση των αποτελεσμάτων με τις διαθέσιμες καταγραφές της ισχυρής εδαφικής κίνησης. Στο τελευταίο κεφάλαιο καταγράφονται τα κύρια συμπεράσματα που προέκυψαν από την παρούσα εργασία, πιθανοί περιορισμοί και μελλοντικές προοπτικές της μελέτης.

Πλήρες Κείμενο:



Aki, K., 1965. Maximum likelihood estimation of b in the formula logN a–bM and its confidence limits, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Tokyo Univ. 43, no. 1965, 237–239.

Aki, K., 1967. Scaling law of seismic spectrum, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1217–1231.

Aki, K., 1980. Scattering and attenuation of shear waves in the lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 85(B11), 6496– 6504, doi:10.1029/JB085iB11p06496.

Akinci, A., Aochi, H., Herrero, A., Pischiutta, M., Karanikas, D., 2017. Physics-Based Broadband Ground-Motion Simulations for Probable Mw ≥7:0 Earthquakes in the Marmara Sea Region (Turkey). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 107. 10.1785/0120160096.

Akkar, S., Bommer, J., 2010. Empirical Equations for the Prediction of PGA, PGV, and Spectral Accelerations in Europe, the Mediterranean Region, and the Middle East. Seismological Research Letters - SEISMOL RES LETT. 81. 195-206. 10.1785/gssrl.81.2.195.

Ambraseys, N.N., Bommer, J.J., 1991. The attenuation of ground accelerations in Europe. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 20, 1179-1202.

Anderson, H., Jackson, J., 1987. Active tectonics of the Adriatic region. Geophys. J.R. Astr. Soc., 91, 937-983.

Anderson, J.G., Hough, S.E., 1984. A Model for the Shape of the Fourier Amplitude Spectrum of Acceleration at High Frequencies. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 74, 1969-1993.

Apostolidis, P., 2002. Determination of the soil structure using microtremors. Application to the estimation of the dynamic properties and the geometry of the soil formations at Thessaloniki city, PhD Thesis (in Greek), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Assatourians, K., Atkinson, G., 2012. EXSIM12: A Stochastic Finite- Fault Computer Program in FORTRAN, http://www.seismotoolbox.ca (last accessed November 2014).

Atkinson, G., Boore, D., 1995. New ground motion relations for eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 85, 17–30.

Atkinson, G., 1996. The High-Frequency Shape of the Source Spectrum for Earthquakes in Eastern and Western Canada. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 86.

Atkinson, M., "An overview of developments in seismic hazard analysis" presented at the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 2004.

Atkinson, G., Assatourians, K., 2014. Implementation and Validation of EXSIM (A Stochastic Finite-Fault Ground-Motion Simulation Algorithm) on the SCEC Broadband Platform. Seismological Research Letters. 86. 48-60. 10.1785/0220140097.

Avallone, A., Cirella, A., Cheloni, D., Tolomei, C., Theodoulidis, N., Piatanesi, A. , Briole, P., Ganas, A., 2017. Near-source high-rate GPS, strong motion and InSAR observations to image the 2015 Lefkada (Greece) Earthquake rupture history. Scientific Reports.

Bajaj, K., Panjamani, A., 2017. Determination of GMPE functional form for an active region with limited strong motion data: application to the Himalayan region. Journal of Seismology.

Banitsiotou, I. D., Tsapanos, T. M., Margaris, V. N., Hatzidimitriou, P. M., 2004. Estimation of the seismic hazard parameters for various sites in Greece using a probabilistic approach, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 4, 399–405, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-4-399-2004.

Beresnev, I., Atkinson, G., 1997. Modelling Finite-Fault Radiation from the n w Spectrum. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 87.

Berge, C., Gariel, J.-C., Bernard, P., 1998. A very broad-band stochastic source model used for near source strong motion prediction. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 (7), 1063–1066.

Bindi, D., Pacor, F., Sabetta, F., Massa, M., 2009. Towards a new reference ground motion prediction equation for Italy: Update of the Sabetta-Pugliese (1996). Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. 7. 591-608. 10.1007/s10518-009-9107-8.

Boncori, M.J.P., Papoutsis, I., Pezzo, G., Tolomei, C., Atzori, S., Ganas, A., Karastathis, V., Salvi, S., Kontoes, C. and Antonioli, A., 2015. The February 2014 Cephalonia Earthquake (Greece): 3D Deformation Field and Source Modeling from Multiple SAR Techniques, Seismological Research Letters, January/February 2015, 86(1), 124-137.

Boore, D. M., 1983. Stochastic Simulation of High-frequency Ground Motions Based on Seismological Models of the Radiated Spectra, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 73, 1865–1894.

Boore, D., 2003. Prediction of ground motion using the stochastic method, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 635–676.

Boore, D. M., 2009. Comparing stochastic point-source and finite-source ground-motion simulations: SMSIM and EXSIM, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 99, no. 6, 3202–3216.

Boore, D., Joyner, W., 1997. Site amplifications for generic rock sites, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 87, 327–341.

Boore, D., Atkinson, G., 1987. Stochastic prediction of ground motion and spectral response parameters at hard-rock site in eastern North America. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 77, 440-467.

Borcherdt, R. D., 1970. Effects of local geology on ground motion near San Francisco Bay, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 60, 29–61.

Boyd, O. S., 2012. Including foreshock and aftershocks in time-independent probabilistic seismic-hazard analyses, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 102, 909–917.

BP Co, 1971. The geological results of petroleum exploration in western Greece, Institute of Geology Subsurface Research, Athens, 10, 73 pp.

Brune, J., 1970. Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4997–5009.

Brune, J. N., 1971. Correction, J. geophys. Res. 76, 5002.

Chousianitis, K., Konca, A. O., Tselentis, G.-A., Papadopoulos, G. A., Gianniou, M., 2016. Slip model of the 17 November 2015 Mw = 6.5 Lefkada earthquake from the joint inversion of geodetic and seismic data. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 7973-7981.

Chousianitis, K., Del Gaudio, V., Pierri, P., Tselentis, G‐A., 2018. Regional ground‐motion prediction equations for amplitude‐, frequency response‐, and duration‐based parameters for Greece. Earthquake Engng Struct Dyn., 47: 2252–2274.

Clément, C., Hirn, A., Charvis, P., Sachpazi, M., Marnelis, F., 2000. Seismic structure and the active Hellenic subduction in the Ionian Islands. Tectonophysics. 329. 141-156. 10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00193-1.

Cocard, M., Kahle, H-G, Peter, Y., Geiger, A., Veis, G., Felekis, S., Paradissis, D., Billiris, H., 1999. New constraints on the rapid crustal motion of the Aegean region: Recent results inferred from GPS measurements (1993-1998) across the West Hellenic Arc, Greece. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 172. 39-47. 10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00185-5.

Cornell, C.A., 1968. Engineering seismic risk analysis, Bull. Seismo. Soc. Am., 58, 1,583–1,606.

Cornell, C.A., 1971. Probabilistic analysis of damage to structures under seismic loads, in Howells, D.A, Haigh, I.P., and Taylor, C., eds., Dynamic waves in civil engineering: Proceedings of a conference organized by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics, New York, John Wiley, 473–493

Cooke, P., 1979. Statistical inference for bounds of random variables, Biometrika 66, 367-374.

Cushing, M., 1985. Evoluation structurale de la marge nord-ouest hellenique dans l’ile de Lefkada et ses environs (Greece nord-occidentale), These du 3em cycle, Univ. de Paris-Sud (XI), Centre d’Orsay.

Danciu, L., Tselentis, A., 2007. Engineering Ground-Motion Parameters Attenuation Relationships for Greece. Bulletin of The Seismological Society of America - Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. 97. 162-183. 10.1785/0120050087.

Davis, S.D., Frolich, C., 1991. Single-link cluster analysis, synthetic earthquake catalogs, and aftershock identification, Geophys. J. Int. 104: 289-306.

Ding, Y., Mavroeidis, G., Theodoulidis, N., 2019. Simulation of strong ground motion from the 1995 Mw 6.5 Kozani-Grevena, Greece, earthquake using a hybrid deterministic-stochastic approach, Soil. Dyn. Earthq. Eng.: 117:357-73.

Doutsos, T., Kontopoulos, N., Fridas, D., 1987. Neotectonic evolution of northwestern continental Greece, Basin Res. 1, 177-190.

Esteva, L., 1970. Regionalización sísmica de México para fines de ingeniería. Instituto de Ingeniería. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Ferentinos, G., Brooks, M., Doutsos, T., 1985. Quaternary tectonics in the Gulf of Patras, western Greece, Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 713- 717.

Finetti, I., Morreli, C., 1973. Geophysical exprolation of the Mediterranean sea. Boll. Geofis. Teor. Appl., 15, 263-341.

Finetti, I., 1982. Structure, stratigraphy and evolution of central Mediterranean. Boll. Geofis. Teor. Appl., 24, 247-426.

Flinn, E.A., Engdahl, E.R., 1965. A proposed basis for geographical and seismic regionalization, Rev. Geophys., 3, 123–149, 1965.

Flinn, E.A., Engdahl, E.R., and Hill, A.R., 1974. Seismic and geographical regionalization, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 64, 771–993, 1974.

Galanopoulos, A.G., 1950. Die Seismizitatder Insel Leukas, Geri. Beitr. Geophys., 63, 1-15.

Galanopoulos, A.G., 1953. Katalog der Erbeben in Griecheland fur die Zeit von 1879 bis 1892, Ann. Geol. Pays Hellen., 5, 144-229.

Galanopoulos, AG., 1960. A catalogue of shocks with I0 ≥ VI or M ≥ 5 for the years 1801 - 1958, Athens, pp. 119.

Galanopoulos, AG., 1961. A catalogue of shocks with I0 ≥ VII for the years prior to 1800, Athens, pp.19.

Ganas, A., Marinou, A, Anastasiou, D., Paradissis, D., Papazissi, K., Tzavaras, P., Drakatos, G., 2013. GPS-derived estimates of crustal deformation in the central and

north Ionian Sea, Greece: 3-yr results from NOANET continuous network data, Journal of Geodynamics, 67, 62-71.

Ganas, A., Elias, P., Bozionelos, G., Papathanassiou, G., Avallone, A., Papastergios, A., Valkaniotis, S., Parcharidis, I., Briole, P., 2016. Coseismic deformation, field observations and seismic fault of the 17 November 2015 M = 6.5, Lefkada Island, Greece earthquake. Tectonics 687:210–222 (ISSN 0040–1951). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. tecto.2016.08.012.

Gardner, G.H.F., Gardner, L.W., Gregory, A.R., 1974. Formation velocity and density – the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps: Geophysics, 39, 770-780.

Gardner, J. K., Knopoff, L., 1974. Is the sequence of earthquakes in southern California, with aftershocks removed, Poissonian? Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 64, 1363–1367.

Garini, E., Gazetas, G., Anastasopoulos, I., 2017. Evidence of significant forward rupture directivity aggravated by soil response in an Mw6 earthquake and the effects on monuments. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 46(13), 2103-2120.

GEER/EERI/ATC Earthquake Reconnaissance. January 26th /F ebruary 2nd 2014 Cephalonia, Greece events. Version 1: June 2014.

Geophysical Laboratory, Geology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), available at: http://seismology.geo.auth.gr/ss/.

Giardini, D., Woessner, J., Danciu, L., 2013. Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE): online data resource. doi:10.12686/SED-00000001-SHARE

Giardini, D., Woessner, J., Danciu, L., 2014. Mapping Europe’s Seismic Hazard. EOS, 95(29): 261-262.

Goldstein, P., Dodge, D., Firpo, M., Minner, L., 2003. “SAC2000: Signal processing and analysis tools for seismologists and engineers, Invited contribution to “The IASPEI International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology”, Edited by WHK Lee, H. Kanamori, P.C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger, Academic Press, London.

Goldstein, P., Snoke, A., 2005. “SAC Availability for the IRIS Community”, Incorporated Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center Electronic Newsletter.

Graves, R., Pitarka, A., 2004. Broadband time history simulation using a hybrid approach.

Guatteri, M., Mai, P.M., Beroza, G.C., 2004. A PD approximation to dynamic rupture models for strong ground motion prediction, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94, 2051–2063.

Gutenberg, B., Richter, C. F., 1944. Frequency of earthquakes in California, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 34, 185–188.

Gupta, H.K., Singh, H.N., 1989. Earthquake swarms precursory to moderate to great earthquakes in the northeast Indi region. Tectonophysics 167, 285-298.

Gupta, S.C., Singh, V.N., Kumar, A., 1995. Attenuation of coda waves in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 87, 247-253.

Habermann, R.E., 1987. Man-made changes of seismicity rates, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 77, 141–159.

Hanks, T., 1982. fm~x, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 72, 1867-1879.

Hartzell, S.H., 1978. Earthquake aftershocks as Green's functions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 5: 1-4. doi:10.1029/GL005i001p00001

Hatzfeld, D., Kassaras, I., Panagiotopoulos, D., Amorese, D., Makropoulos, K., Karakaisis, D., Coutant, O., 1995. Microseismicity and strain pattern in northwestern Greece. Tectonics, Vol.14, No 4, 773-785.

Hatzfeld, D., Karagianni, E., Kassaras, I., Kiratzi, A., Louvari, E., Lyon-Caen, H., Makropoulos, K., Papadimitriou, P., Bock, G., Priestley, K., 2001. Shear wave anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath the Aegean related to internal deformation. Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth. 106. 30737-30753. 10.1029/2001JB000387.

Hatzidimitriou, P. M., Papadimitriou, E. E., Mountrakis, D. M., and Papazachos, B. C., 1985. The seismic parameter b of the frequency - magnitude relation and its association with the geological zones in the area of Greece, Tectonophysics, 120, 141–151.

Hatzidimitriou, P., Papazachos, C., Kiratzi, A., Theodulidis, N., 1993. Estimation of attenuation structure and local earthquake magnitude based on accleration records in Greece, Tectonophysics 217, 243–253.

Hatzidimitriou, P., 1995. S-wave attenuation in the crust in Northern Greece, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 85, 1381- 1387.

Hollenstein, Ch., Müller, M.D., Geiger, A., Kahle, H.G., 2008. Crustal motion and deformation in Greece from a decade of GPS measurements, 1993–2003. Tectonophysics. 449. 17-40. 10.1016/j.tecto.2007.12.006.

Husen, S., Hardebeck, J.L., 2011. Understanding seismicity catalogs and their problems, Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis doi: 10.5078/corssa-55815573.

Iervolino, I., Giorgio, M., Polidoro, B., 2012. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for seismic sequences, in Vienna Congress on Recent Advances in Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 2013, C. Adam, R. Heuer, W. Lenhardt, and C. Schranz (Editors), 28–30 August 2013, Vienna, Austria, Paper No. 66

Irikura, K., 1986. Prediction of strong acceleration motion using empirical Green's function,Proc. 7th Japan Earthq. Eng. Symp., Tokyo, 151-156.

Irikura, K., Miyake, H., 2011. Recipe for predicting strong ground motion from crustal earthquake scenarios. Pure Appl. Geophys., 168, 85-104, doi: 10.1007/s00024-010-0150-9.

Jackson, J., 1994. Active tectonics of the Aegean region. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 22: 239-271.

Jenny, S., Goes, S., Giardini, D., Kahle, H.-G., 2004. Earthquake recurrence parameters from seismic and geodetic strain rates in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophys. J. Int. 157, 1331–1347.

Jin, A., Aki, K., 1988. Spatial and Temporal Correlation between Coda Q and Seismicity in China. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 78, 741-769.

Kahle, H.-G., Muller, M.V., Mueller, St., Veis, G., 1993b. The Kephalonia transform fault and the rotation of the Apulian platform: Evidence from satellite geodesy.

Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(8): 651-654.

Kahle, H., Muller, M., Geiger, A., Danuser, G., Mueller, S., Veis, G., Billiris, H., Paradissis, D., 1995. The strain field in northwestern Greece and the Ionian islands: results inferres from GPS measurements. Tectonophysics, 249, 41-52.

Kahle, H., Muller, M., Veis, G., 1996. Trajectories of crustal deformation of Western Greece from GPS observations 1989 - 1994. J. Geophys. Lett., 23, 677-680.

Kahle, H-G, Cocard, M., Peter, Y., Geiger, A., Reilinger, R., Barka, A., Veis, G., 2000. GPS-derived strain rate field within the boundary zones of the Eurasian, African, and Arabian Plates. Journal of Geophysical Research. 105.

Kanamori, H., Anderson, D., 1975. Theoretical Basis of Some Empirical Relations in Seismology. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 65. 1073-1095.

Kapetanidis, V., Agalos, A., Moshou, A., Kaviris, G., Karakonstantis, A., Papadimitriou, P., Makropoulos, K., 2008. Preliminary results from the study of a seismic swarm occurred in February 2008 in NW Peloponnesus.

Kapetanidis, V., Deschamps, A., Papadimitriou, P., Matrullo, E., Karakonstantis, A., Bozionelos, G., Kaviris, G., Serpetsidaki, A., Lyon-Caen, H., Voulgaris, N., Bernard, P.,

Sokos, E., Makropoulos, K., 2015. The 2013 earthquake swarm in Helike, Greece: seismic activity at the root of old normal faults. Geophys. J. Int. 202 (3), 2044–2073. https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ ggv249.

Karakostas, V., Papadimitriou, E., Papazachos, C., 2004. Properties of the 2003 Lefkada, Ionian islands, Greece, Earthquake seismic sequence and seismicity triggering. BSSA 94 (5), 1976–1981.

Karakostas, V.G., Papadimitriou, E.E., 2010. Fault complexity associated with the 14 August 2003 Mw6.2 Lefkada, Greece, aftershock sequence. Acta Geophys. 58: 838. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11600-010-0009-6.

Karakostas, V., Papadimitriou, E., Mesimeri, M., Gkarlaouni, C., Paradisopoulou, P., 2015. The 2014 Kefalonia doublet (M w 6.1 and M w 6.0), central Ionian islands, Greece: seismotectonic implications along the Kefalonia transform fault zone. Acta Geotech. 1–16 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11600-014-0227-4.

Karastathis, V., Mouzakiotis, A., Ganas, A., Papadopoulos, G., 2015. High-precision relocation of seismic sequences above a dipping Moho: The case of the January–February 2014 seismic sequence on Cephalonia Island (Greece). Solid Earth. 6. 10.5194/se-6-173-2015.

Kassaras, I., Papadimitriou, P., Hatzfeld, D., Makropoulos, K., Drakopoulos, J., 1994. Microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in northwestern Greece.

Kassaras, I., Kalantoni, D., Benetatos, Ch., Kaviris, G., Michalaki, K., Sakellariou N., Makropoulos, K., 2015. Seismic damage scenarios in Lefkas old town (W. Greece). Bull. Earth. Engin., Vol. 13, Iss. 12, 3669-3711.

Κασσάρας, Ι., & Καβύρης, Γ., 2016. Εργαστηριακά Κεφάλαια Σεισμολογίας. Ανάκτηση από http://eclass.uoa.gr/courses/GEOL233/.

Kassaras, I., Kazantzidou-Firtinidou, D., Ganas, A., Tonna, S., Pomonis, A., Karakostas, Ch., Papadatou-Giannopoulou, Ch., Psarris, D., Lekkas, E., Makropoulos, K., 2018. On the Lefkas (Ionian Sea) November 17, 2015 Mw=6.5 Earthquake Macroseismic Effects. Journal of Earthquake Engineering. 1-31. 10.1080/13632469.2018.1488776.

Kastens, K. A., Gilbert, L. E., Hurst, K. J.A, Veis, G., Paradissis, D., Billiris, H., Schluter, W. and Seeger, H., 1996. GPS evidence for arc-parallel extension along the Hellenic arc, Greece. Tectonophysics.

Kazantzidou-Firtinidou, D., Kassaras, I., Tonna, S., Ganas, A., Vintzileou, E. and Chesi, C. [2016] “Τhe November 2015 Mw6.4 earthquake effects in Lefkas Island”,Proc. of 1st ICONHIC, Crete, Paper No 119

Kaviris, G., Papadimitriou, P., Makropoulos, K., 2010. Anisotropy study of the February 4th 2008 swarm in NW Peloponnesus (Greece). Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece, vol. XLIII, No 4, p. 2084-2092. doi: 10.12681/bgsg.11398.

Kaviris, G., Millas, C., Spingos, I., Kapetanidis, V., Fountoulakis, I., Papadimitriou, P., Voulgaris, N., Makropoulos, K., 2018. Observations of shear-wave splitting parameters in the Western Gulf of Corinth focusing on the 2014 Mw ¼ 5.0 earthquake. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 282, 60–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. pepi.2018.07.005.

Kaviris, G., Spingos, I., Kapetanidis, V., Papadimitriou, P., Voulgaris, N., Makropoulos, K., 2017. Upper crust seismic anisotropy study and temporal variations of shear-wave splitting parameters in the western Gulf of Corinth (Greece) during 2013. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 269 https://doi.org/10.1016/j. pepi.2017.06.006.

Kazantzidou-Firtinidou, D., Kassaras, I., Tonna, S., Ganas, A., Vintzileou, E., Chesi, C., 2016. “Τhe November 2015 Mw6.4 earthquake effects in Lefkas Island”, Proc. of 1st ICONHIC, Crete,Paper No 119.

Kijko, A., Singh M., 2011. Statistical tools for maximum possible earthquake magnitude estimation, Acta Geophys. 59, 674-700.

King G., Sturdy D., Whitney, J., 1993. The landscape geometry and active tectonics of the northwest Greece, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 105, 137-161.

Kiratzi A., Papadimitriou E., Papazachos, B.C., 1987. A microearthquake survey in the Steno dam site in northwestern Greece, Ann. Geophys. 592, 161-166.

Kiratzi, A., Langston, C., 1991. Moment tensor inversion of the 1983 January 17 Kefallinia event of Ionian islands (Greece). Geophys. J. Int., 105, 529-538.

Kiratzi, A., Louvari, E., 2003. Focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes in the Aegean Sea and the surrounding lands determined by waveform modeling: a new database. J. Geodyn. 36, 251–274.

Kiratzi, A., Roumelioti, Z., Makra, K., Klimis, N., Koskosidi, A., 2019. Hybrid broadband seismic ground motions: application to the city of Edessa in northern Greece.

Klimis, N., Margaris, B., Koliopoulos, P., 1999. Site dependent amplification functions and response spectra in Greece, J. Earthquake Eng. 3, no. 2, 237–247.

Kokinou, E., Papadimitriou, E., Karakostas, V., Kamperis, E., Vallianatos, F., 2006. The Kefalonia Transform Zone (offshore Western Greece) with special emphasis to its prolongation towards the Ionian Abyssal Plain. Marine Geophysical Researches. 27. 241-252. 10.1007/s11001-006-9005-2.

Kostrov, B., Das, S., 1988. Principles of Earthquake Source Mechanics.Cambridge University Press, London.

Lay, T., Wallace, T.C., 1995. Modern global seismology, Volume 58 of International geophysics series. San Diego: Academic Press.

Lekkas E, Mavroulis, S., 2015. Earthquake environmental effects and ESI 2007 seismic intensities of the early 2014 Cephalonia (Ionian Sea, western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0). Nat Hazards. doi: 10.1007/s11069-015-1791.

Lekkas, E., Mavroulis, S., Carydis, P., Alexoudi, V., 2018. The 17 November 2015 Mw 6.4 Lefkas (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) Earthquake: Impact on Environment and Buildings. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. 36. 10.1007/s10706-018-0452-8.

Le Pichon, X., Chamot-Rooke, N., Lallemant, S., Noomen, R., Veis, G., 1995. Geodetic determination of the kinematics of Central Greece with respect to Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research. 100. 12675-12690. 10.1029/95JB00317.

Leptokaropoulos, K. M., Karakostas, V.G., Papadimitriou, E.E., Adamaki, A.K., Tan, O., İnan, S., 2013. A homogeneous earthquake catalogue compilation for western turkey and magnitude of completeness determination, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 103, 2739–2751.

Leventakis, G.A., 2003. Microzonation study of the city of Thessaloniki, PhD, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 84 p.

Louvari, E., Kiratzi, A.A., Papazachos, B.C., 1999. The Cephalonia transform fault and its extension to western Lefkada island (Greece). Tectonophysics 308 (1999) 223-236.

Mai, P. M., 2009. Ground motion: Complexity and scaling in the near field of earthquake ruptures, in Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, W. H. K. Lee and R. Meyers (Editors), Springer, New York, 4435–4474.

Mai, P.M., Beroza, G.C., 2003. A hybrid method for calculating nearsource, broadband seismograms: Application to strong motion prediction, Phys. Earth Planet. In. 137,

nos. 1/4, 183–199, doi: 10.1016/ S0031-9201(03)00014-1.

Makropoulos, K.C., 1978. The statistics of large earthquake magnitude and an evaluation of Greek seismicity. Phd Thesis, Univ. of Edinburgh.

Makropoulos, K.C., Burton, P.W., 1985. HAZAN: A Fortran program to evaluate seismic - hazard parameters using Gumbel’s theory of extreme value statistics. Computers & Geosciences Vol . 12, 29-46.

Makropoulos, K., Diagourtas, D., Kassaras, J., Kouskouna, V., Papadimitriou, P., Ziazia, M., 1996. The November - December 1994 Lefkas (W. Greece) earthquake sequence: results from in situ seismological survey (abstract). 1st Congress of the Balkan Geophysical Society, Sept. 23-27, Athens.

Makropoulos, K., Kaviris, G., Kouskouna, V., 2012. An updated and extended earthquake catalogue for Greece and adjacent areas since 1900, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 1425-1430.

Margaris, B.N., Boore, D.M., 1998. Determination of Δσ and κ0 from response spectra of large earthquakes in Greece, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 88.

Margaris, B., Hatzidimitriou, P., 2002. Source Spectral Scaling and Stress Release Estimates Using Strong-Motion Records in Greece. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 92. 1040-1059. 10.1785/0120010126.

Margaris, B.N., Papazachos, C.B., Papaioanou, Ch., Theodoulidis, N., Kalogeras, I., Skarlatoudis, A.A., 2002. Empirical attenuation relations for the horizontal strong ground motion parameters of shallow earthquakes in Greece. 12th European Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, London.

Marzocchi, W., Sandri, L., 2003. A review and new insights on the estimation of the b-value and its uncertainty. Annals of Geophysics. 46. 1271-1282.

Marzocchi, W., Taroni, M., 2014. Some thoughts on declustering in probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 104, 1838–1845.

McGuire, R.K., 1976. FORTRAN computer program for seismic risk analysis, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-67.

McKenzie, D.P., 1978. Some remarks on the development of sedimentary basins, «Earth and Planetary Science Letters», 40, 25-32.

Mena, B., Mai, P., Olsen, K., Purvance, M., Brune, J., 2010. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scattering Green's Functions: Application to Large-

Magnitude Events. Bulletin of The Seismological Society of America - BULLSEISMOL SOC AMER. 100. 2143-2162. 10.1785/0120080318.

Mercier, J., Carey, E., Philip, H., Sorel, D., 1976. La neotectonique plio-quaternaire de l’ arc egeen externe et de la mer Egee et ses relations avec la seismicite. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr.2.

Mesimeri, M., Karakostas, V., Papadimitriou, E., Schaff, D., Tsaklidis, G., 2016. Spatiotemporal properties and evolution of the 2013 Aigion earthquake swarm (Corinth Gulf, Greece). J. Seismol. 20 (2), 595–614. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-015-9546-4.

Mesimeri, M., Karakostas, V., Papadimitriou, E., Tsaklidis, G., Jacobs, K., 2018. Relocation of recent seismicity and seismotectonic properties in the Gulf of Corinth (Greece). Geophys. J. Int. 212(2, 1123–1142. ttps://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggx450.

Mignan, A., Woessner, J., 2012. Estimating the magnitude of completeness for earthquake catalogs. Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis.


Millas, Ch., 2018. Slip Distribution Of Large Earthquakes In Greece, MSc Thesis. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

Millas, Ch., Kaviris, G., Karakostas, V., Papadimitriou, P., 2018. Slip distribution and resulting surface deformation assessment of strong earthquakes in Greece. Abstract, 36th ESC General Assembly, Valetta, Malta, ESC2018-S19-573.

Motazedian, D., Atkinson, G.M., 2005. Stochastic finite-fault mod-eling based on a dynamic corner frequency, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.95, 995–1010.

Nakamura, Y., 1989. A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface, QR RTRI 30, 25–33.

Nyst, M., Thatcher, W., 2004. New constraints on the active tectonic deformation of the Aegean. JGR, Vol 109, No B11, 406.

Olson, A.H., Orcutt, J.A., Frazier, G.A., 1984, The discrete wavenumber / finite element method for synthetic seismograms, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., v. 77, 421- 460.

Oral, M.B., Reilinger, R.E., Toksöz, M.N., King, R.W., Barka, A.A., Kinik, I., Lenk, O., 1995. Global positioning system offers evidence of plate motions in eastern Mediterranean, EOS Trans. AGU 76, 2, 9-11.

Ordaz, M., 1991. CRISIS. Brief description of program CRISIS, Internal report. Institute of Solid Earth Physics. University of Bergen, Norway, 16pp.

Ordaz, M., 1999. User’s manual for program CRISIS1999. Technical report. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Mexico City, Mexico.

Ordaz, M., Salgado-Gálvez, M.A., 2018. R-CRISIS Validation and Verification Document. ERN Technical Report. Mexico City, Mexico.

Panou, A., Theodoulidis, N., Hatzidimitriou, P., Stylianidis, K., Papazachos, C., 2005. Ambient noise horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio in site effects estimation and correlation with seismic damage distribution in urban environment: the case of the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 25:261–274

Papadimitriou, P., 1988. Etude de la structure du manteau superieur de l’ Europe et modelisation des ondes de volume engendrees par des seismes Egeens. Phd Thesis, University Paris.

Papadimitriou, P., Kaviris, G., Makropoulos, K., 2006. The Mw= 6.3 2003 Lefkada earthquake (Greece) and induced stress transfer changes. Tectonophysics 423, 73–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2006.03.003

Papadimitriou, P., Karakonstantis, A., Bozionelos, G., Kapetanidis, V., Kaviris, G., Spingos, I., Millas, Ch., Kassaras, I., Voulgaris, N., 2015. Preliminary report on the Lefkada 17 November 2015 Mw=6.4 earthquake.

Papadimitriou, E., 1993. Focal mechanism along the convex side of the Hellenic Arc. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata. 35. 401-426.

Papadimitriou, E.E., 2002. Mode of strong earthquake recurrence in the central Ionian Islands (Greece): Possible triggering due to Coulomb stress changes generated by the occurrence of previous strong shocks, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 92, 8, 3293-3308, DOI: 10.1785/0120000290.

Papadimitriou, E., Karakostas, V., Mesimeri, M., Chouliaras, G., Kourouklas, Ch., 2017. The Mw6.5 17 November 2015 Lefkada (Greece) Earthquake: Structural Interpretation by Means of the Aftershock Analysis. Pure and Applied Geophysics. 174. 10.1007/s00024-017-1601-3.

Papadopoulos, G., Karastathis, V., Koukouvelas, I., Sachpazi, M., Baskoutas, I., Chouliaras, G., Agalos, A., Daskalaki, E., Minadakis, G., Moshou, A., Mouzakiotis, A.,

Orfanogiannaki, K., Papageorgiou, A., Spanos, D., Triantafyllou, I., 2014. The Cephalonia, Ionian Sea (Greece), sequence of strong earthquakes of January-February 2014: A first report. 4. 5441-19. 10.4081/rg.2014.5441.

Papageorgiou, A., Aki, K., 1983. A specific barrier model for the quantitative description of inhomogeneous faulting and the prediction of strong ground motion. Part I: description of the model, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 73, 693-722.

Papaioannou, Ch.A., Papazachos, B.C., 2000. Time-independent and time-dependent seismic hazard in Greece based on seismogenic sources, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 90, 22–33.

Papaioannou, C.A., 2001. Final rpt. of the Project: “Selection and elaboration of seismological data&compilation of new seismic hazard map of Greece compatible with the current Greek Seismic Code and Eurocode 8”, [Scient. Resp.], EPPO-ITSAK, Greece, 68 pp.

Παπανικολάου, Δ.Ι., Σίδερης, Χρ.Ι., 2005. Γεωλογία. Η επιστήμη της Γης. Εκδόσεις Πατάκη, 291 σελ.

Papanikolaou, D., Bargathi, H., Dabovski, C., Dimitriu, R., El-Hawat, A., Ioane, D., Kranis, H., Obeidi, A., Oaie, G., Seghedi, A., Zagorchev, I., 2004. Transect VII: East

European Craton - Scythian Platform - Dobrogea - Balkanides - Rhodope Massif - Hellenides - East Mediterranean - Cyrenaica. In: The TRANSMED Atlas - The Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle - Geological and Geophysical Framework of the Mediterranean and the Surrounding Areas, Editors: Cavazza, W., Roure, F.,

Spakman, W., Stampfli, G.M., Ziegler, P.A.

Papathanassiou, G., Valkaniotis, S., Ganas, A., Pavlides, S., 2013. GIS-based statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced landslides in the island of Lefkada, Ionian Islands, Greece. Landslides 10 (6):771–783. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1007/s10346–012-0357S.

Papathanassiou G., Valkaniotis S., Ganas A., Grendas N., Kollia E., 2017. The November 17th, 2015 Lefkada (Greece) strike-slip earthquake: field mapping of generated failures and assessment of macroseismic intensity ESI-07, Eng. Geol. , 220, 13–30.

Papazachos, B.C., 1974. Dependence of the seismic parameter b on the Magnitude range. Pure Appl. Geophys., 112, 1059-1065.

Papazachos, B.C., 1980. Seismicity rates and long term earthquake prediction in the Aegean area, Quaterniones Geodaesiae, 3, 171– 190.

Papazachos, B.C., 1990. Seismicity of the Aegean and surrounding area, Tectonophysics, 178, 287–308.

Papazachos, B.C., Papaioannou, C.A., 1993. Long term earthquake prediction in the Aegean area based on a time and magnitude predictable model, Pure Appl. Geophys., 140, 595–612.

Papazachos, B., 1996. Large seismic faults in the Hellenic arc. Annals of Geophysics. 39. 10.4401/ag-4023.

Papazachos C., Kiratzi A., 1996. A detailed study of the active crustal deformation in the Aegean and and surrounding area, Tectonophysics 253, 129-153.

Papazachos, B.C., Papadimitriou, E.E., Kiratzi, A.A., Papazachou, C.B., Louvari, E.K., 1998. Fault plane solutions in the Aegean sea and the surrounding area and their tectonic implication, Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl. 39, 3, 199-218.

Papazachos, C.B., 1999. Seismological and GPS evidence for the Aegean-Anatolia interaction. Geophysical Research Letters, 26: 2653-2656.

Papazachos, B.C., Comninakis, P.E., Karakaisis, G.F., Karakostas, B.G., Papaioannou, Ch.A., Papazachos, C.B., Scordilis, E.M., 2000. A catalogue of earthquakes in Greece and surrounding area for the period 550BC-1999. Publ. Geoph. Lab., Univ. of Thessaloniki, 1, 333pp.

Papazachos, B.C., Papazachou, C.B., 2003. The earthquakes of Greece. Ziti publications, Thessaloniki, 273pp.

Papazachos, B.C., Scordilis, E., Panagiotopoulos, D., Papazachos, C., Karakaisis, G., 2004. Global relations between seismic fault parameters and moment magnitude of earthquakes. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece. 36. 1482-1489. 10.12681/bgsg.16538.

Papazachos, B.C., Comninakis, P.E., Scordilis, E.M., Karakaisis, G.F., Papazachos C.B., 2010. A catalogue of earthquakes in the Mediterranean and surrounding area for the period 1901-2010, Publ. Geophys. Laboratory, University of Thessaloniki.

Pérouse, E., Sébrier, M., Braucher, R., Chamot-Rooke, N., Bourlès, D., Briole, P., Sorel, D., Dimitrov, D., Arsenikos, S., 2016. Transition from collision to subduction in Western Greece: the Katouna–Stamna active fault system and regional kinematics. International Journal of Earth Sciences. 106. 10.1007/s00531-016-1345-9.

Peter, Y., Kahle, H-G, Cocard, M., Veis, G., Felekis, S., Paradissis, D., 1998. Establishment of a continuous GPS network across the Kephalonia Fault Zone, Ionian Islands, Greece. Tectonophysics. 294. 253-260. 10.1016/S0040-1951(98)00103-6.

Raghukanth, S.T.G., Somala, S.N., 2009. Modeling of Strong-Motion Data in Northeastern India: Q, Stress Drop, and Site Amplification Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 99, 705-725.

Reasenberg, P., 1985. Second-order moment of central California seismicity, 1969–1982, J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5479–5495.

Reilinger, R., Mcclusky, S., Oral, B., King, R., Toksoz, M., Barka, A.A., Kinik, I., Lenk, O., Sanli, I., 1997. Global Positioning System measurements of present-day crustal movements in the Arabia-Africa-Eurasia plate collision zone. Journal of Geophysical Research. 102. 9983-10000. 10.1029/96JB03736.

Reilinger, R., Ergintav, S., Burgmann, R., Mcclusky, S., Lenk, O., Barka, A., Gurkan, O., Hearn, L., Feigl, K., Cakmak, R., Aktug, B., Ozener, H., Töksoz, M.N., 2000. Coseismic and Postseismic Fault Slip for the 17 August 1999, M = 7.5, Izmit, Turkey Earthquake. Science (New York, N.Y.). 289. 1519-1524.

Reiter, L., 1990. Earthquake Hazard Analysis: Issues and Insights. New York: Columbia University Press.

Robinson, R., 1979. Variation of energy release, rate of occurrence and b value of earthquakes in the main seismic region, New Zealand, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 18, 209-220.

Robson, D.S., Whitlock, J.H., 1964. Estimation of a truncation point, Biometrika 51, 33-39.

Roumelioti, Z., Kiratzi, A., Margaris, B., Chatzipetros, A., 2016. Simulation of strong ground motion on near-fault rock outcrop for engineering purposes: The case of the city of Xanthi (Northern Greece). Bull. Earthq. Eng. 15, 25–49.

Sachpazi, M., Hirn, A., Clément, C., Haslinger, F., Laigle, M., Kissling, E., Charvis, P., Hello, Y., Lépine, J-C, Sapin, M., Ansorge, J., 2000. Western Hellenic subduction and Cephalonia Transform: Local earthquakes and plate transport and strain. Tectonophysics. 319. 301-319. 10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00300-5.

Sahu, O.P., Saikia, M.M., 1994. The b value before the 6th August, 1988 India-Myanmar border region earthquake: a case study. Tectonophysics 234, 349-354.

Scherbaum F., Bommer J.J., Bungum H., Cotton F., Abrahamson N.A., 2005. Composite ground-motion models and logic trees: methodology, sensitivities and uncertainties. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 95(5):1575-1593.

Scholz, C., 1968. Microfracturing and the inelastic deformation of rock in compression. J. Geophys. Res. 73(4), 1417-1432.

Scordilis, E.M., Karakaisis, G.F., Karakostas, B.G., Panagiotopoulos, D.G., Comninakis, P.E., Papazachos, B.C., 1985. Evidence for transform faulting in the Ionian sea: The Cephalonia island earthquake sequence of 1983. Pure Appl. Geophys, 123, 388-397.

Segou, M., 2010. Frequency dependent seismic hazard in Greece by probabilistic and deterministic analysis. PhD Thesis.

Segou, M., Voulgaris, N., 2013. The Use of Stochastic Optimization in Ground Motion Prediction. Earthquake Spectra: Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 283-308.

Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Budnitz, R. J., G. Apostolakis, D. M. Boore, L. S. Cluff, K. J. Coppersmith, C. A. Cornell, Morris, P.A, 1997. Recommendations for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Guidance on uncertainty and use of experts, Washington, D.C., U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report, NUREG/CR-6372.

SHARE, 2010. Compilation od existing regional and national seismic source zones. Seventh Freaework Programme.

Siddiqqi, J., Atkinson, G., 2002. Ground motion amplification at rocksites across Canada, as determined from the horizontal-to-verticalcomponent ratio, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 92, 877–884.

Singh, S.K., Garcia, D., Pacheco, J.F., Valenzuela, R., Bansal, B.K., Dattatrayam R.S., 2004. Q of the Indian shield; Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94 1564–1570.

Skarlatoudis, A.A., Papazachos, C.B., Margaris, B.N., Theodoulidis, N., Papaioannou, C.H., Kalogeras, I., Scordilis, E.M., Karakostas, V.G., 2003. Empirical peak ground motion predictive relations for shallow earthquakes in Greece. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, 93, 2591-2603.

Slejko, D., Santulin, M., Garcia, J., Papoulia, J. Daskalaki, E., Fasulaka, Ch., Fokaefs, A., Ilinski, D., Mascle, J., Makris, J., Nicolich, R., Papadopoulos, G. A., Tsambas, A., Wardell, N., 2010. SEAHELLARC Working Group. Preliminary seismic hazard assessments for the area of Pylos and surrounding region (SW Peloponnese), Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl., 51, 163–186.

Smith, W., 1981. The b-value as an earthquake precursor, Nature 289, 136-139.

Smith, W., 1986. Evidence for precursory changes in the frequency-magnitude b-value. Geophys. J. R. Asron. Soc. 86 (3). 815-838.

Song, S.G. & Dalguer, L.A., 2013. Importance of 1-point statistics in earthquake source modelling for ground motion simulation, Geophys. J. Int.,192, 1255–1270.

Sokos, E., Kiratzi, A., Gallovič, F., Zahradnik, J., Serpetsidaki, A., Plicka, V., Janský, J., Kostelecký, J., Tselentis, A., 2015. Rupture process of the 2014 Cephalonia, Greece, earthquake doublet (Mw6) as inferred from regional and local seismic data. Tectonophysics. 656. 10.1016/j.tecto.2015.06.013.

Sokos, E., Zahradník, J., Gallovič, F., Serpetsidaki, A., Plicka, V., Kiratzi, A., 2016. Asperity break after 12 years: the Mw6.4 2015 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43:6137–6145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069427.

Song S., Dalguer, L.A., 2013. Importance of 1-point statistics in earthquake source modeling for ground motion simulation, Geophys. J. D210 Int., 192, 1,255-1,270.

Spudich, P., 1980. The Dehoop-Knopoff representation theorem as a linear inversion problem, Geophys. Res. Lett., 9, 717 – 720.

Spudich, P., Archuleta, R., 1987. Techniques for earthquake ground motion calculation with applications to source parameterization of finite faults, in Bolt, B.A. ed., SEISMIC STRONG MOTION SYNTHETICS: Orlando, Florida, Academic P

Spudich, P., Xu, L., 2002. Documentation of Software Package Compsyn sxv3.11: Programs for Earthquake Ground Motion Calculation Using Complete 1-D Green's Functions. International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology.

Stride, A., Belderson, R., Kenyon, N., 1977. Evolving miogeoanticlines of the Eastern Mediterranean (Hellenic, Calabrian and Cyprus outer ridges). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 282, 255-285.

Stucchi, M., Rovida, A., Gómez, A., Alexandre, P., Camelbeeck, T., Demircioglu, M., Gasperini, P., Kouskouna, V., Musson, R., Radulian, M., Sesetyan, K., Vilanova, S., Baumont, D., Bungum, H., Fäh, D., Lenhardt, W., Makropoulos, K., Martinez, J., Scotti, O., Giardini, D., 2012. The SHARE European Earthquake Catalogue (SHEEC)

–1899. Journal of Seismology. 17. 10.1007/s10950-012-9335-2.

Theodoulidis, N., 1991. Contribution to strong ground motion study in Greece. PhD Thesis, Aristotle University.

Theodulidis, N., Papazachos, B., 1992. Dependence of strong ground motion on magnitude-distance, site geology and macroseismic intensity for shallow earthquakes in Greece: I, Peak horizontal acceleration, velocity and displacement. Soil Dyn. & Earth. Eng., 11, p. 387-402.

Theodoulidis, N., Grendas, I., 2016. Near fault velocity pulse estimation: The Cephalonia Feb. 3, 2014 earthquake (M6.0). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece. [Online] 50:3

Theodoulidis, N., Karakostas, Ch., Lekidis, V., Makra, K., Margaris, B., Morfidis, K., Papaioannou, Ch., Rovithis, Emm., Salonikios, T., Savvaidis, A., 2016. The Cephalonia, Greece, January 26(M 6.1) and February 3, 2014(M 6.0) earthquakes: Near-faultground motion and effects on soil and structures, Bull. Earthq.Eng. 14, 1–38.

Triantafyllidis, P., Theodulidis, N., Savvaidis, A., Dimitriou, P. 2006. Site effects estimation using earthquake and ambient noise data: the case of Lefkas town. In: Proceedings of the First European conference on earthquake engineering and seismology. Geneva, paper 1249. 3–8 Sept 2006.

Tselentis, G.-A., 1993. Depth Dependent Seismic Attenuation in Western Greece. Tectonophysics, 225, 523-528.Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, XLIII/2, 754-762.

Tselentis, G., Danciu, L., 2010. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Greece – Part 1: Engineering ground motion parameters. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 10(1), pp.25-39.

Utsu, T., 1999. Representation and analysis of the earthquake size distribution: a historical review and some new approaches, Pure Appl Geophys 155, 471–507.

Valkaniotis, S., Ganas, A., Papathanassiou, G., Papanikolau, M., 2014. Field observations of geological effects triggered by the JanuaryFebruary 2014 Cephalonia (Ionian Sea, Greece) earthquakes, Tectonophysics 630, 150–157, doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.05.012.

Vamvakaris, D.A., 2010. Contribution to the study of the time dependant seismicity and the seismic hazard, Ph.D. thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, 428 pp., and 2 Appendices.

Vamvakaris, D., Papazachos, C., Papaioannou, Ch. Skordilis, Emm., Karakaisis, G., 2016. A detailed seismic zonation model for shallow earthquakes in the broader Aegean area. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Wang, Z., 2009. Seismic Hazard vs. Seismic Risk. Seismological Research Letters. 80. 673-674. 10.1785/gssrl.80.5.673.

Waters, D., 1994. The tectonic evolution of Epirus, Northwestern Greece, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, p. 248.

Wells, D.L., Coppersmith, K.J., 1994. New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area and surface displacement. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 84, 974-1002.

Wessel, P., Smith, W.H.F., Scharroo, R., Luis, J., Wobbe, F., 2013. Generic Mapping Tools: improved version released. Eos. Trans. AGU 94-45, 409–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013 EO450001.

Wheeler, Russell L., 2009. Methods of Mmax Estimation East of the Rocky Mountains: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1018, 44p.

Wiemer, S., Wyss, M., 1997. Mapping the frequency-magnitude distribution in asperities: an improved technique to calculate recurrence times? J Geophys Res 102(B7):15115–15128.

Wiemer, S., Wyss, M., 2000. Minimum magnitude of completeness in earthquake catalogs: Examples from Alaska, the Western United States, and Japan, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 90, 859–869.

Woessner, J., Wiemer, S., 2005. Assessing the quality of earthquake catalogs: Estimating the magnitude of completeness and its uncertainty, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 95, 684–698.

Wyss, M., Stefansson, R., 2006. Nucleation points of recent main shocks in Southern Iceland, mapped by b-values, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 2006, vol. 96, pp. 599–608.

Young, J.B., Presgrave, B.W., Aichele, H.,Wiens, D. A., Flinn, E.A., 1996. The Flinn-Engdahl Regionalisation Scheme: the 1995 revision, Phys. Earth Planet. In., 96, 223–297.

Zahradnik, J., Sokos, E., 2015. Lefkada 17/11/2015, Mw 6.4 event: Quick estimate of source complexity, CSEM/EMSC Report.

Zhao, L., Chen, P., Jordan, T.H., 2006. Strain Green’s tensors, reciprocity, and their applications to seismic source and structure studies, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 96, no. 5, 1753–1763, doi: 10.1785/0120050253.

Εισερχόμενη Αναφορά

  • Δεν υπάρχουν προς το παρόν εισερχόμενες αναφορές.