Προκαταρκτική μελέτη της μεταλλοφορίας Cu-Pb-Zn σε ανθρακικά πετρώματα στο Μυριόφυτο Κιλκίς = Preliminary study of the carbonate – hosted Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization in Myriofyto of Kilkis

Ευτυχία Πέτρος Πέτικα


Το Μυριόφυτο βρίσκεται 31 χλμ Β του Κιλκίς, και ανήκει γεωτεκτονικά στη
Σερβομακεδονική μάζα και πιο συγκεκριμένα στην ενότητα Βερτίσκου. Η ενότητα του Βερτίσκου αποτελείται από μεταμορφωμένα πετρώματα, όπως γνευσίους, σχιστολίθους, σερπεντινίτες και μάρμαρα Παλαιοζωικής ηλικίας. Η μεταλλοφορία Cu-Pb-Zn-Au του Μυριόφυτου εντοπίζεται διάσπαρτη μέσα στα μάρμαρα και σε χαλαζιακές φλέβες που διεισδύουν σε αυτά. Στα μεταμορφωμένα πετρώματα της περιοχής διεισδύει και ο Μεσοζωικής ηλικίας Α-τύπου γρανίτης του Μυριόφυτου. Τα μάρμαρα είναι κυρίως ασβεστιτικά, με εναλλαγές ασβεστιτικών και δολομιτικών ταινιών σε ορισμένες περιοχές και είναι κατά θέσεις έντονα πτυχωμένα και μυλωνιτιωμένα. Μέσα σε ζώνες διάτμησης εντός των μαρμάρων διεισδύουν οι χαλαζιακές φλέβες που φιλοξενούν τη μεταλλοφορία. Τρεις τύποι μεταλλοφορίας διακρίνονται με βάση τη μικροσκοπική μελέτη των δειγμάτων: 1) σιδηροπυρίτης + χαλκοπυρίτης + σφαλερίτης + μαγνητίτης + τενναντίτης ± γαληνίτης ± αρσενοπυρίτης ± γαληνοβισμουθίνης ± ματιλντίτης ± χρυσός, 2) σιδηροπυρίτης + χαλκοπυρίτης + σφαλερίτης ± γαληνίτης, και 3) γαληνίτης ± σιδηροπυρίτης ± σφαλερίτης. Ο πρώτος τύπος χαρακτηρίζεται από την παρουσία χρυσού και ορυκτών του Bi (Bi-γαληνίτης, γαληνοβισμουθίνης, ματιλντίτης). Ο δεύτερος τύπος χαρακτηρίζεται από την παρουσία δευτερογενών ορυκτών όπως χαλκοσίνης, κοβελλίνης, μαλαχίτης, γκαιτίτης-λειμωνίτης, γεγονός που δηλώνει ότι η μεταλλοφορία έχει υποστεί οξείδωση. Ο τρίτος τύπος χαρακτηρίζεται από την παρουσία σχεδόν εξ‘ ολοκλήρου αδρόκοκκου γαληνίτη. Η μελέτη ρευστών εγκλεισμάτων έδωσε αλατότητες από 7,11 έως 14,36 κ.β.% ισοδ. NaCl και θερμοκρασίες ομογενοποίησης από 178 έως 291οC, όμοιες με αυτές της As-Cu-Au μεταλλοφορίας στο Στανό Μειοκαινικής ηλικίας (19 Ma). Η προέλευση των μεταλλοφόρων ρευστών της μεταλλοφορίας στο Μυριόφυτο πιθανώς να σχετίζεται με μία πιθανή μαγματική διείσδυση Μειοκαινικής ηλικίας σε βάθος που δεν έχει εντοπιστεί μέχρι σήμερα.

    Myriofyto is located 31km north of Kilkis and belongs to the Serbo-Macedonian Massif and, more specifically to the Vertiskos Unit. Vertiskos Unit consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, such as gneisses, schists, serpentinites and marbles. The Myriofyto Cu-Pb-Zn-Au mineralization occurs in the marbles forming disseminations and quartz veins. The metamorphic rocks of the area are intruded by the Paleozoic A-type granite of Myriofyto. The marbles are mainly calcitic, with zones of calcitic and dolomitic alternations and occur intensively mylonitic and folded in places. The mineralized quartz veins intrude in the marbles through shear zones. On the basis of the microscopic study, three types of mineralization are distinguished: 1) pyrite + chalcopyrite + sphalerite + magnetite + tennantite ± galena ± arsenopyrite ± galenobismutite ± matildite ± gold, 2) pyrite + chalcopyrite + sphalerite ± galena, and 3) galena ± pyrite ± sphalerite. The first type is characterized by the presence of gold and Bi-rich minerals (Bi-galena, galenobismutite, mateldite). The second type is characterized by the presence of secondary minerals like chalcosite, covellite, malachite, goethite-limonite. This fact shows that the mineralization has undergone subsequent supergene oxidation. The third type is characterized by the exclusive presence of coarse-grained galena. The fluid inclusions study showed salinities from 7.11 to 14.36 wt% equiv. NaCl and homogenization temperatures from 178 to 291οC, similar to those of the Stanos As-Cu-Au mineralization of Miocene age (19 Ma). The origin of the metal-bearing fluids in Myriofyto is possibly associated with an unexposed magmatic intrusion in depth of Miocene age.

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