Fishbone wells: Drilling, stimulation and productivity = Γεωτρήσεις τύπου fishbone: Όρυξη, διέγερση και παραγωγικότητα.

Efstratios Fotios Atsalos


The aim of the present postgraduate dissertation is to study the process of drilling fishbone wells and the parameters that affect their performance. Drilling wells with multiple laterals has flourished in recent years as it is accompanied by many economic and environmental benefits. Fishbone wells are a subcategory of these, which aim to exploit the same reservoir layer through laterals extending from a central horizontal well. They stand out from the method of fishbone stimulation in terms of the radius of influence and the drilling procedure. For large-scale fishbone drilling, rotary steerable systems are primarily used due to the smoother wells that they are capable of drilling and secondarily the mud motors, with the trickiest part being the drilling of every kick-off interval, while the fishbone stimulation method follows a standard procedure, in which drilling mud is injected into a wellbore causing short laterals to extend, penetrating the reservoir around it. As for the productivity of the larger wells, it depends on the number of laterals, the angle they form with the main well and their geometry as it has been suggested that straight laterals have a greater inflow. Their length, distance, and scattering do have an impact, but it is not significant. There is disagreement as to whether these factors affect the initial transient period or the entire life of a reservoir. In addition, the role of the horizontal to vertical permeability factor is controversial. Due to their complex structure, the use of artificial intelligence and statistical methods to predict their production has begun.

Στόχος της παρούσας μεταπτυχιακής διατριβής είναι η μελέτη της διαδικασίας διάνοιξης γεωτρήσεων τύπου fishbone και των παραμέτρων που επηρεάζουν την απόδοσή τους. Η όρυξη γεωτρήσεων πολλαπλών κλάδων έχει ανθίσει τα τελευταία χρόνια καθώς συνοδεύεται από πολλά οικονομικά και περιβαλλοντικά οφέλη. Οι γεωτρήσεις τύπου fishbone αποτελούν μια υποκατηγορία αυτών, που στοχεύουν στην εκμετάλλευση του ίδιου στρώματος ταμιευτήρα μέσω πλευρικών γεωτρήσεων οι οποίες ξεκινούν από ένα κεντρικό οριζόντιο τμήμα. Ξεχωρίζουν από τη μέθοδο διέγερσης, η οποία περιλαμβάνει γεωτρήσεις ίδιου σχήματος, ως προς την ακτίνα επιρροής και τη διαδικασία διάτρησης. Για μεγάλης κλίμακας τέτοιων γεωτρήσεων χρησιμοποιούνται κυρίως περιστρεφόμενα κατευθυνόμενα συστήματα (rotary steerable systems) λόγω των ομαλότερων γεωτρήσεων που μπορούν να διανοίξουν και δευτερευόντως οι κινητήρες λάσπης (mud motors), με το πιο δύσκολο κομμάτι να είναι οι διάτρηση του εναρκτήριου διαστήματος κάθε πλευρικού κλάδου, ενώ στη μέθοδο διέγερσης ακολουθείται μια τυπική διαδικασία κατά την οποία διατρητική λάσπη εισπιέζεται σε μια γεώτρηση προκαλώντας την έκταση των κοντών πλευρικών κλάδων, διεισδύοντας στον ταμιευτήρα γύρω της. Όσον αφορά την παραγωγικότητα των μεγαλύτερων γεωτρήσεων, αυτή εξαρτάται από τον αριθμό των πλευρικών γεωτρήσεων, τη γωνία που σχηματίζουν με την κύρια γεώτρηση και τη γεωμετρία τους, καθώς έχει προταθεί ότι οι ευθύγραμμοι κλάδοι έχουν μεγαλύτερη εισροή. Το μήκος, η απόσταση και η διασπορά τους έχουν αντίκτυπο, αλλά δεν είναι σημαντικός. Υπάρχει διαφωνία ως προς το εάν αυτοί οι παράγοντες επηρεάζουν την αρχική μεταβατική περίοδο ή ολόκληρη τη διάρκεια ζωής ενός ταμιευτήρα. Επιπλέον, ο ρόλος του παράγοντα της οριζόντιας προς κατακόρυφης διαπερατότητας είναι αμφιλεγόμενος. Λόγω της πολύπλοκης δομής των γεωτρήσεων τύπου fishbone, έχει ξεκινήσει η χρήση τεχνητής νοημοσύνης και στατιστικών μεθόδων για την πρόβλεψη της παραγωγής τους.

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